Cellular RespirationCellular respiration is a subset of metabolism. Catabolism Energy releasing pathways that break down nutrient molecules stepwise release of energy. Provides the energy needed to drive the energy requiring anabolic reactions of growth, maintenance, reproduction, and other forms of cellular work such as movement. Anabolism Energy requiring pathways that synthesize molecules. Provides for growth and repair.
Cellular Respiration Flashcards | Quizlet
Cellular respiration is a subset of metabolism. Catabolism Energy releasing pathways that break down nutrient molecules stepwise release of energy. Provides the energy needed to drive the energy requiring anabolic reactions of growth, maintenance, reproduction, and other forms of cellular work such as movement.
Anabolism Energy requiring pathways that synthesize molecules. Provides for growth and repair. To remember the terms think of anabolic steroids. Energy may be released in 2 major ways. Think of a can of gasoline exploding 2 Step-wise release, in which small amounts of energy are incrementally released and harnessed to do useful work.
Think of gasoline in an engine, doing useful work. ATP is a nucleic acid. Energy is stored in phosphate bonds. Energy is released when a phosphate bond is cleaved. ATP is the energy currency of the cell and is vital to life as it powers cells.
Like charging and using a battery. Must have constant replenishment of ATP supply by cellular respiration. The use of energy released from catabolic reactions to power anabolic reactions. Critical to the success of cells is the efficient coupling of energy-yielding catabolic processes to energy requiring anabolic processes. Coupling is possible because the same molecular intermediate, ATP, stores the energy from catabolic reactions and is used to drive anabolic reactions.
The enzymatically controlled, stepwise oxidation slow burning of nutrient molecules food in the cell that catabolically releases and transfers the energy of the food molecules' chemical bonds to the useful cellular form of ATP.
Transforming energy in food into ATP, so it can perform useful work at the cellular level. Organelles especially important to respiration. Site of aerobic respiration. The mitochondrion has been called "the powerhouse of the cell," as the chemical reactions of aerobic cellular respiration occur within it. The process by which glucose 6 carbons is split into two, 3 carbon, pyruvate molecules.
It occurs in the cytoplasm and produces two ATP's. Fate of pyruvates depends on oxygen environment in cell: Aerobic exercise Oxygen Present. This helps prevent oxygen demand from exceeding the ability of the body to deliver oxygen to the cells. Maintains an aerobic environment in body cells. Occurs if no oxygen is present. With glycolysis, makes up anaerobic pathway. Occurs in the cytoplasm. Waste products are ethanol alcohol in some fungi and bacteria or lactic acid in vertebrates.
No additional energy is produced, but energy carriers are recharged to allow glycolysis to occur again. Otherwise, no energy is released and we would die if we did not have enough oxygen for our cells.
Anaerobic respiration is very inefficient, but better than death. Cannot be used very long by aerobic creatures. If oxygen is present, aerobic respiration occurs after pyruvate from glycolysis is transported to the mitochondria. Aerobic respiration consists of the Kreb's cycle and the electron transport chain. Aerobic pathway includes glycolysis and aerobic respiration Kreb's cycle and electron transport chain.
First stage of aerobic respiration, occurs only if oxygen is present. Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. Begins with pyruvate, the product of glycolysis. Separates carbons and hydrogens of glucose, releasing carbon as carbon dioxide and using hydrogens electrons to charge energy carriers for electron transport chain. Directly produces only 2 more ATP's but charges many carriers 10 for big payoff later. Second and final stage of aerobic respiration. Occurs across inner membranes of mitochondria.
Electrons from charged energy carriers are transported down proteins in inner membrane. Process is called chemiosmosis. Produces 32 ATP's beyond glycolysis 2 and the Kreb's cycle 2 for an aerobic total of 36 per glucose!
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor forming water. If oxygen is not present, process backs up and only anaerobic pathway is available. Equation for Aerobic Cellular Respiration. It is the basic cellular process by which organisms harvest energy from food. It may occur aerobically or anaerobically. Aerobic respiration is 18X more efficient than fermentation. Glycolysis precedes aerobic respiration and fermentation.
Aerobic respiration has two stages: Aerobic respiration is more efficient than your car. Why do we breathe? We breathe to get oxygen.
We need oxygen to serve as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain of the aerobic pathway. If oxygen is absent, then the aerobic pathway is unavailable, and only the anaerobic pathway is available.
The anaerobic pathway is much less efficient, as it produces only 2 ATPs per glucose, while the aerobic pathway produces 36 ATPs per glucose: Much of form and function at the level of the organism exists to support cellular respiration, for example your pulmonary, digestive, and circulatory systems provide oxygen and food and remove carbon dioxide and wastes.
Cellular respiration is one of the very fundamental biological processes around which life has become organized. Many processes of life such as cellular work, maintenance, growth, and reproduction depend upon cellular respiration, as it provides the energy for anabolic processes.