Metabolism and energyThe cell theory is that the basic structural and functional unit of life is a cell. Each of you began as a cell from a zygote. Even a whale starts as a single microscopic cell. From that original zygote you just increase the number of cells. An amoeba is a single celled drhydration that lives in pondwater.
Anabolic and Catabolic Reactions
The cell theory is that the basic structural and functional unit of life is a cell. Each of you began as a cell from a zygote. Even a whale starts as a single microscopic cell. From that original zygote you just increase the number of cells. An amoeba is a single celled protozoa that lives in pondwater. The rounder cell on the right is a typical human cell taken from inside someones cheek. Despite how drastically different they look and the different environments they live in, there are a lot of similarities between all living cells.
The water environment the amoeba lives in is called pondwater. The fluid that surrounds human cells are called tissue fluid. In fact, if you scrape the top dead skin cells off of your skin, some white fluid will start to come out. The word metabolic means biochemical. The two types are called anabolic and catabolic. Anabolic reactions are associated with growth.
Catabolic are associated with the release of energy and energy production. At any moment both reactions are occurring. Collectively all of these reactions are called your metabolism. Catabolic reactions are the breakdown of organic molecules for energy. Breaking down sugars for energy, fat for energy, and so forth are all catabolic. To remember what catabolic means, think a CATastrophe where things are falling apart and breaking apart. You could also think of CATS that tear apart your furniture.
None of us are growing any taller. There is only one direction we can grow and that is wider. Even a body builder that increases proteins in their body cells will never grow taller, but wider. If we want to get thinner, we have to slow down the growth reactions. The way you form these organic molecules are from the food. Eating less slows down the anabolic reactions.
If you do things that require energy, such as exercise, that speeds up the breakdown of fats and carbs for energy and speeds up the catabolic reactions.
If you want to get thinner, eat less and exercise. Exercise speeds up the catabolic reactions. If we, as adults maintain a balance between anabolic and catabolic we stay the same weight. For children, these reactions should not be in balance. In a child, the anabolic reactions have to be greater than the catabolic.
Boys start their growth spurt after girls. The boys change a couple years after the girls. Guys may gain inches in that growth spurt between years of age. During that growing period they will eat up all the food in your refrigerator. They are growing like crazy during that time. This is the phenomena everybody notices.
Anabolic reactions involve the joining of smaller molecules together to form larger, more complex molecules. This occurs through dehydration synthesis reactions. These are the most common ways smaller organic molecules can be formed into more complex ones and applies to the formation of carbs, proteins, lipis and nucleic acids.
Remember when we explained how margarine is made? You start with polyunsaturated vegetable oils and hydrogenate them so that it looks like a saturated fat like those found in animals.
A reduction reaction involves the adding of hydrogens and electrons to a molecule. Whenever you do that, it gains calories of energy because when you split a hydrocarbon bond, it releases energy. Catabolism is the breaking apart of molecules to smaller molecules to release energy. An example of a catabolic reaction is digestion and cellular respiration where you break apart sugars and fats for energy. Breaking down a protein into amino acids or a triglyceride into fatty acids or a disaccharide into monosaccharides are all hydrolysis or catabolic reactions.
There are these molecules called free radicals that oxidize, or in other words, strip hydrogens and electrons off complex organic molecules.
It appears that when free radicals do this, they accelerate the aging of cells and may also cause normal cells to transform into cancer cells. An antioxidant prevents free radicals from stripping off hydrogens, illustrated to the right. For example, Vitamin C and Vitamin E are antioxidants. So the point of taking antioxidants or eating food that contains lots of them is to help slow down aging and prevent cancer from forming.
A unicellular organism called an amoeba. A single human cheek cell. Two Types of Anabolic Reactions 1. Dehydration Synthesis Reactions Anabolic reactions involve the joining of smaller molecules together to form larger, more complex molecules. Hydrolysis Reactions Catabolism is the breaking apart of molecules to smaller molecules to release energy.
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