CorticosteroideLos corticosteroides del lat. Los efectos de los corticosteroides pueden dividirse en glucocorticoide y mineralocorticoide. Son productos de la zona fasciculada descargados bajo la corticoidees de la ACTH hipofisiaria. A chemical formula is not a name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula efectos farmacologicos de los corticoides imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula.
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Los corticosteroides del lat. Los efectos de los corticosteroides pueden dividirse en glucocorticoide y mineralocorticoide. Son productos de la zona fasciculada descargados bajo la influencia de la ACTH hipofisiaria. A chemical formula is not a name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula.
Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, the simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type. Molecular formulas indicate the numbers of each type of atom in a molecule. For reasons of structural complexity, there is no condensed chemical formula that specifies glucose, chemical formulas may be used in chemical equations to describe chemical reactions and other chemical transformations, such as the dissolving of ionic compounds into solution.
A chemical formula identifies each constituent element by its chemical symbol, in empirical formulas, these proportions begin with a key element and then assign numbers of atoms of the other elements in the compound, as ratios to the key element. For molecular compounds, these numbers can all be expressed as whole numbers. For example, the formula of ethanol may be written C2H6O because the molecules of ethanol all contain two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom.
Some types of compounds, however, cannot be written with entirely whole-number empirical formulas. An example is boron carbide, whose formula of CBn is a variable non-whole number ratio with n ranging from over 4 to more than 6.
When the chemical compound of the consists of simple molecules. These types of formulas are known as molecular formulas and condensed formulas. A molecular formula enumerates the number of atoms to reflect those in the molecule, so that the formula for glucose is C6H12O6 rather than the glucose empirical formula.
However, except for very simple substances, molecular chemical formulas lack needed structural information, for simple molecules, a condensed formula is a type of chemical formula that may fully imply a correct structural formula. Sangre — Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Albumin is the protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are red blood cells, white blood cells. The most abundant cells in blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, a protein, which facilitates oxygen transport by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas.
In contrast, carbon dioxide is mostly transported extracellularly as bicarbonate ion transported in plasma, vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated and dark red when it is deoxygenated. Some animals, such as crustaceans and mollusks, use hemocyanin to carry oxygen, insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system. In most insects, this blood does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their system to suffice for supplying oxygen.
Jawed vertebrates have an immune system, based largely on white blood cells. White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites, platelets are important in the clotting of blood. Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system, Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones.
The average adult has a volume of roughly 5 litres. Whole blood exhibits non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, if all human hemoglobin were free in the plasma rather than being contained in RBCs, the circulatory fluid would be too viscous for the cardiovascular system to function effectively.
One microliter of blood contains,4. Glucocorticoide — Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones. Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the receptor, that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name glucocorticoid is composed from its role in regulation of metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex. A less common synonym is glucocorticosteroid, gCs are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system which reduces certain aspects of immune function, such as reduction of inflammation.
They are therefore used in medicine to treat diseases caused by an immune system, such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases. GCs have many effects, including potentially harmful side effects. They also interfere with some of the mechanisms in cancer cells.
This includes, inhibitory effects on lymphocyte proliferation as in the treatment of lymphomas and leukemias, gCs affect cells by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor. Glucocorticoids are distinguished from mineralocorticoids and sex steroids by their specific receptors, target cells, in technical terms, corticosteroid refers to both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, but is often used as a synonym for glucocorticoid.
Glucocorticoids are chiefly produced in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, cortisol is the most important human glucocorticoid. It is essential for life, and it regulates or supports a variety of important cardiovascular, metabolic, immunologic, glucocorticoid effects may be broadly classified into two major categories, immunological and metabolic.
In addition, glucocorticoids play important roles in development and body fluid homeostasis. As discussed in detail below, glucocorticoids function through interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor. Down-regulate the expression of proinflammatory proteins, glucocorticoids are also shown to play a role in the development and homeostasis of T lymphocytes. This has been shown in mice with either increased or decreased sensitivity of T cell lineage to glucocorticoids.
The name glucocorticoid derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism, in the fasted state, cortisol stimulates several processes that collectively serve to increase and maintain normal concentrations of glucose in blood. Enhancing the expression of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis is probably the best-known metabolic function of glucocorticoids, mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues, These serve as substrates for gluconeogenesis.
Excessive glucocorticoid levels resulting from administration as a drug or hyperadrenocorticism have effects on many systems, some examples include inhibition of bone formation, suppression of calcium absorption, delayed wound healing, muscle weakness, and increased risk of infection. Mineralocorticoide — Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Mineralocorticoids are corticosteroids that influence salt and water balances, the primary mineralocorticoid is aldosterone, notable for an aldehyde group at the 18 position. The name mineralocorticoid derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in the retention of sodium, the primary endogenous mineralocorticoid is aldosterone, although a number of other endogenous hormones have mineralocorticoid function.
This in turn results in an increase of pressure and blood volume. Mineralocorticoids bind to the receptor in the cell cytosol, and are able to freely cross the lipid bilayer of the cell. This type of receptor becomes activated upon ligand binding, the opposite mechanism is called transrepression. The hormone receptor without ligand binding interacts with heat shock proteins, aldosterone and cortisol have similar affinity for the mineralocorticoid receptor, however, glucocorticoids circulate at roughly times the level of mineralocorticoids.
An enzyme exists in mineralocorticoid target tissues to prevent overstimulation by glucocorticoids and this enzyme, beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II, catalyzes the deactivation of glucocorticoids to dehydro metabolites.
Licorice is known to be an inhibitor of this enzyme and chronic consumption can result in a known as pseudohyperaldosteronism. An example of a synthetic mineralocorticoid is fludrocortisone, important antimineralocorticoids are spironolactone and eplerenone. Inflammation is a response, and therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity. Too little inflammation could lead to tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus. In contrast, chronic inflammation may lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, periodontitis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Inflammation is therefore normally closely regulated by the body.
Inflammation can be classified as acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is the response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma.
A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the vascular system, the immune system.
Inflammation is not a synonym for infection, Inflammation on the other hand describes purely the bodys immunovascular response, whatever the cause may be. But because of how often the two are correlated, words ending in the suffix -itis are sometimes described as referring to infection. There are also situations where microbial invasion does not result in classic inflammatory response—for example, parasitosis.
Acute inflammation is a process, usually appearing within a few minutes or hours. It involves a coordinated and systemic mobilisation response locally of various immune, endocrine, in a normal healthy response, it becomes activated, clears the pathogen and begins a repair process and then ceases.
It is characterized by five signs, An acronym that may be used to remember the key symptoms is PRISH, for pain, redness, immobility, swelling. Loss of function has multiple causes, Acute inflammation of the lung does not cause pain unless the inflammation involves the parietal pleura, which does have pain-sensitive nerve endings.
PAMPs are compounds that are associated with pathogens, but which are distinguishable from host molecules. DAMPs are compounds that are associated with host-related injury and cell damage, at the onset of an infection, burn, or other injuries, these cells undergo activation and release inflammatory mediators responsible for the clinical signs of inflammation.
Vasodilation and its resulting increased blood flow causes the redness and increased heat, increased permeability of the blood vessels results in an exudation of plasma proteins and fluid into the tissue, which manifests itself as swelling. Some of the released mediators such as increase the sensitivity to pain.
Sistema inmunitario — The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, a system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms. In many species, the system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system.
In humans, the barrier, blood—cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and similar fluid—brain barriers separate the peripheral immune system from the neuroimmune system. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections, other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and invertebrates.
These mechanisms include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides called defensins, and the complement system, jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms, including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. Adaptive immunity creates immunological memory after a response to a specific pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination, disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer.
Immunodeficiency occurs when the system is less active than normal. In contrast, autoimmunity results from an immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimotos thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1, immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system.
Immunology is a science that examines the structure and function of the immune system and it originates from medicine and early studies on the causes of immunity to disease. The earliest known reference to immunity was during the plague of Athens in BC, thucydides noted that people who had recovered from a previous bout of the disease could nurse the sick without contracting the illness a second time. In the 18th century, Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis made experiments with scorpion venom and observed that certain dogs and this and other observations of acquired immunity were later exploited by Louis Pasteur in his development of vaccination and his proposed germ theory of disease.
Pasteurs theory was in opposition to contemporary theories of disease. It was not until Robert Kochs proofs, for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize in , viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in , with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by Walter Reed.
Immunology made an advance towards the end of the 19th century, through rapid developments, in the study of humoral immunity. Metabolismo — Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.
These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, usually, breaking down releases energy and building up consumes energy. The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical. Enzymes act as catalysts that allow the reactions to proceed more rapidly, enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cells environment or to signals from other cells.
The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious, for example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals.