Health BlogHuman chorionic gonadotropin hcg function in males dunction a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation. Hcg function in males cancerous tumors produce this hormone; therefore, elevated levels measured when the patient is not pregnant may lead to a cancer diagnosis and, if high enough, paraneoplastic syndromeshowever, it is not known whether this production is a contributing cause, or an effect of carcinogenesis. The pituitary analog maels hCG, known as luteinizing hormone LHis produced in the pituitary gland of males and females of all ages. Regarding pharmaceutical preparations of hCG hcy animal or synthetic sources, there are many gonadotropin preparationssome of which are medically justified and others of which are of a quack nature. Human chorionic gonadotropin is beta hcg test males composed of amino acids with a molecular mass of
Human chorionic gonadotropin - Wikipedia
Human chorionic gonadotropin hCG is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation. Some cancerous tumors produce this hormone; therefore, elevated levels measured when the patient is not pregnant may lead to a cancer diagnosis and, if high enough, paraneoplastic syndromes , however, it is not known whether this production is a contributing cause, or an effect of carcinogenesis.
The pituitary analog of hCG, known as luteinizing hormone LH , is produced in the pituitary gland of males and females of all ages. Regarding pharmaceutical preparations of hCG from animal or synthetic sources, there are many gonadotropin preparations , some of which are medically justified and others of which are of a quack nature.
Human chorionic gonadotropin is glycoprotein composed of amino acids with a molecular mass of The two subunits create a small hydrophobic core surrounded by a high surface area-to-volume ratio: The vast majority of the outer amino acids are hydrophilic.
Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the beginning of pregnancy. This allows the corpus luteum to secrete the hormone progesterone during the first trimester. Progesterone enriches the uterus with a thick lining of blood vessels and capillaries so that it can sustain the growing fetus [ citation needed ].
Due to its highly negative charge, hCG may repel the immune cells of the mother, protecting the fetus during the first trimester [ citation needed ]. It has also been hypothesized that hCG may be a placental link for the development of local maternal immunotolerance [ citation needed ].
For example, hCG-treated endometrial cells induce an increase in T cell apoptosis dissolution of T cells. These results suggest that hCG may be a link in the development of peritrophoblastic immune tolerance, and may facilitate the trophoblast invasion, which is known to expedite fetal development in the endometrium. Because of its similarity to LH , hCG can also be used clinically to induce ovulation in the ovaries as well as testosterone production in the testes.
As the most abundant biological source is women who are presently pregnant, some organizations collect urine from pregnant women to extract hCG for use in fertility treatment. Naturally, it is produced in the human placenta by the syncytiotrophoblast.
Like any other gonadotropins , it can be extracted from the urine of pregnant women or produced from cultures of genetically modified cells using recombinant DNA technology. In Pubergen , Pregnyl , Follutein , Profasi , Choragon and Novarel , it is extracted from the urine of pregnant women. In Ovidrel , it is produced with recombinant DNA technology.
Regular hCG is the main form of hCG associated with the majority of pregnancy and in non-invasive molar pregnancies. This is produced in the trophoblast cells of the placental tissue. Hyperglycosylated hCG is the main form of hCG during the implantation phase of pregnancy, with invasive molar pregnancies, and with choriocarcinoma.
Blood or urine tests measure hCG. These can be pregnancy tests. These can be done to diagnose and monitor germ cell tumors and gestational trophoblastic diseases.
The international unit of hCG was originally established in and has been redefined in and in The latter two are always present at varying levels in the body, whereas the presence of hCG almost always indicates pregnancy.
Many hCG immunoassays are based on the sandwich principle , which uses antibodies to hCG labeled with an enzyme or a conventional or luminescent dye. Pregnancy urine dipstick tests are based on the lateral flow technique. The following is a list of serum hCG levels. LMP is the last menstrual period dated from the first day of the last menstrual period. The levels grow exponentially after conception and implantation.
As pregnancy tests, quantitative blood tests and the most sensitive urine tests usually detect hCG between 6 and 12 days after ovulation. This, as well as several other conditions, can lead to elevated hCG readings in the absence of pregnancy. For this reason, a positive result in males can be a test for testicular cancer. Human chorionic gonadotropin injection is extensively used for final maturation induction in lieu of luteinizing hormone.
In the presence of one or more mature ovarian follicles, ovulation can be triggered by the administration of HCG. As ovulation will happen between 38 and 40 hours after a single HCG injection,  procedures can be scheduled to take advantage of this time sequence,  such as intrauterine insemination or sexual intercourse.
Also, patients that undergo IVF , in general, receive HCG to trigger the ovulation process, but have an oocyte retrieval performed at about 34 to 36 hours after injection by, a few hours before the eggs actually would be released from the ovary.
As HCG supports the corpus luteum , administration of HCG is used in certain circumstances to enhance the production of progesterone. In the male, HCG injections are used to stimulate the Leydig cells to synthesize testosterone.
The intratesticular testosterone is necessary for spermatogenesis from the sertoli cells. Typical uses for HCG in men include hypogonadism and fertility treatment. Several vaccines against human chorionic gonadotropin hCG for the prevention of pregnancy are currently in clinical trials.
This is why early ultrasound confirmation at the beginning of a pregnancy to see whether the pregnancy is intrauterine or not is crucial. Pregnancies that have occurred after a treatment with this medicine are submitted to a higher risk of multiplets. Female patients who have thrombosis, severe obesity, or thrombophilia should not be prescribed this medicine as they have a higher risk of arterial or venous thromboembolic events after or during a treatment with HCG Pubergen, Pregnyl.
In the case of male patients: A prolonged treatment with HCG Pubergen, Pregnyl is known to regularly lead to increased production of androgen. Patients who are suffering from overt or latent cardiac failure, hypertension, renal dysfunction, migraines, or epilepsy might not be allowed to start using this medicine or may require a lower dose of HCG Pubergen, Pregnyl.
Also this medicine should be used with extreme caution in the treatment of prepubescent teenagers in order to reduce the risk of precocious sexual development or premature epiphyseal closure. This type of patients' skeletal maturation should be closely and regularly monitored. Both male and female patients who have the following medical conditions must not start a treatment with HCG Pubergen, Pregnyl: In the world of performance-enhancing drugs, HCG is increasingly used in combination with various anabolic-androgenic steroid AAS cycles.
As a result, HCG is included in some sports' illegal drug lists. When exogenous AAS are put into the male body, natural negative-feedback loops cause the body to shut down its own production of testosterone via shutdown of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis HPGA.
This causes testicular atrophy, among other things. HCG is commonly used during and after steroid cycles to maintain and restore testicular size as well as normal testosterone production. High levels of AASs, that mimic the body's natural testosterone, trigger the hypothalamus to shut down its production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH from the hypothalamus.
LH normally travels from the pituitary via the blood stream to the testes, where it triggers the production and release of testosterone. Without LH, the testes shut down their production of testosterone. If HCG is used for too long and in too high a dose, the resulting rise in natural testosterone and estrogen would eventually inhibit endogenous production of luteinizing hormone via negative feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
British endocrinologist Albert T. Simeons proposed HCG as an adjunct to an ultra-low-calorie weight-loss diet fewer than calories.
Simeons in published a book entitled Pounds and Inches , designed to combat obesity. Other researchers did not find the same results when attempting experiments to confirm Simeons' conclusions, and in in response to complaints the FDA required Simeons and others to include the following disclaimer on all advertisements: These weight reduction treatments include the injection of HCG, a drug which has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as safe and effective in the treatment of obesity or weight control.
There is no substantial evidence that HCG increases weight loss beyond that resulting from caloric restriction, that it causes a more attractive or "normal" distribution of fat, or that it decreases the hunger and discomfort associated with calorie-restrictive diets.
Federal Trade Commission in , and eventually jailed over such claims. A study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition  concluded that HCG is not more effective as a weight-loss aid than dietary restriction alone. A meta analysis found that studies supporting HCG for weight loss were of poor methodological quality and concluded that "there is no scientific evidence that HCG is effective in the treatment of obesity; it does not bring about weight-loss or fat-redistribution, nor does it reduce hunger or induce a feeling of well-being".
There is no scientific evidence that HCG is effective in the treatment of obesity. The meta-analysis found insufficient evidence supporting the claims that HCG is effective in altering fat-distribution, hunger reduction, or in inducing a feeling of well-being.
The results of this meta-analysis support a firm standpoint against this improper indication. Restraints on physicians practicing this therapy can be based on our findings. According to the American Society of Bariatric Physicians, no new clinical trials have been published since the definitive meta-analysis.
The scientific consensus is that any weight loss reported by individuals on an "HCG diet" may be attributed entirely to the fact that such diets prescribe calorie intake of between and 1, calories per day, substantially below recommended levels for an adult, to the point that this may risk health effects associated with malnutrition.
Controversy about, and shortages  of, injected HCG for weight loss have led to substantial Internet promotion of " homeopathic HCG" for weight control.
The ingredients in these products are often obscure, but if prepared from true HCG via homeopathic dilution, they contain either no HCG at all or only trace amounts. Moreover, it is highly unlikely that oral HCG is bioavailable due to the fact that digestive protease enzymes and hepatic metabolism renders peptide-based molecules such as insulin and human growth hormone biologically inert.
HCG can likely only enter the bloodstream through injection. The United States Food and Drug Administration has stated that over-the-counter products containing HCG are fraudulent and ineffective for weight loss.
They are also not protected as homeopathic drugs and have been deemed illegal substances. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Retrieved December 7, UniProt accession number P Archived from the original PDF on Bulletin of the World Health Organization.
Archived from the original on Retrieved 1 June New England Journal of Medicine. Minerva Ginecol in Italian. Retrieved 21 January Retrieved Mars 7, [ unreliable medical source? Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. Int J Sports Med.