Hormone Replacement Therapy for MenopauseThe term "hormone hormone therapy for menopause risks or "HT" is being used gherapy replace the outdated terminology "hormone replacement therapy" or "HRT. Menopause is the stage in hormone therapy for menopause risks woman's life when menstruation stops and she can no longer bear children. During menopausethe body produces less of the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone. Hormon menopausethe lower hormone levels cause the monthly menstrual periods to stop and gradually eliminate the possibility of becoming pregnant. These nombres anabolicos inyectables in hormone levels can also cause troublesome symptoms, such as hot flashes a sudden sensation of warmth, sometimes associated with flushing, and often followed by sweating and sleep disturbance.
Hormone Therapy for Women: Side Effects, Cancer Risks
The term "hormone therapy" or "HT" is being used to replace the outdated terminology "hormone replacement therapy" or "HRT. Menopause is the stage in a woman's life when menstruation stops and she can no longer bear children. During menopause , the body produces less of the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone. After menopause , the lower hormone levels cause the monthly menstrual periods to stop and gradually eliminate the possibility of becoming pregnant.
These fluctuations in hormone levels can also cause troublesome symptoms, such as hot flashes a sudden sensation of warmth, sometimes associated with flushing, and often followed by sweating and sleep disturbance. Sometimes women experience other symptoms, such as vaginal dryness and mood changes.
While many women encounter little or no trouble during menopause, others endure moderate to severe discomfort. Does menopause cause bone loss? The lower estrogen levels of menopause can lead to progressive bone loss that is especially rapid in the first five years after menopause.
Some bone loss in both men and women is normal as people age. Lack of estrogen after menopause adds another strain on the bones in addition to the usual age-related bone loss. When bone loss is severe, a condition called osteoporosis weakens bones and renders them susceptible to breaking. Some of the symptoms of menopause can actually begin years before menstrual periods stop occurring.
Doctors generally use the term "perimenopause" to refer to the time period beginning prior to the menopause when some of the signs and symptoms of menopause begin to occur up through the first year following menopause. Menopause itself is defined as having had 12 consecutive months without a menstrual period. Menopause symptoms begin gradually while the ovaries are still functioning and a woman is still having menstrual periods.
These symptoms can begin as early as the 4th decade of life when a woman is in her 30s and may persist for years until menopause has occurred. The symptoms occur early because the levels of hormones produced by the ovaries estrogen and progesterone decline slowly over time, explaining why pregnancy is still possible, but less likely to occur, as a woman reaches her forties.
The severity and duration of symptoms vary widely among individuals - some women may experience only minimal symptoms for a year or two, while others may experience at least some of the symptoms for several years. While most women will experience a gradual transition to menopause with a slow onset of symptoms, some women will experience an early premature menopause that may bring on immediate symptoms, depending on the cause of the ovarian failure.
One common cause of immediate symptoms is a "surgical menopause" following the surgical removal of functioning ovaries. Menopause symptoms can be perceived as physical problems, emotional disturbances, or problems associated with sexual functioning. What are estrogen therapy and hormone therapy HT? Estrogen, in pill, patch, or gel form, is the single most effective therapy for suppressing hot flashes.
The term estrogen therapy, or ET, refers to estrogen administered alone. Because ET alone can cause uterine cancer endometrial cancer see below , a progestin is administered together with estrogen in women who have a uterus those who have not undergone a hysterectomy to eliminate the increased risk.
This method of prescribing hormones is also known as combination hormone therapy. All forms of hormone therapy HT that are FDA-approved for therapy of hot flashes are similarly effective in suppressing hot flashes. What are the side effects and risks of hormone therapy HT? Women can experience side effects during hormone therapy; these can be divided into more minor side effects, and more serious side effects. The more minor side effects are more common than the serious side effects, and are generally perceived by women as "annoying.
It is still controversial which of these side effects are due to the estrogen component as compared to the progesterone component. Therefore, if side effects persist for a few months, the doctor will often alter either the progesterone or the estrogen part of the hormone therapy HT.
Contrary to common belief, recent research has confirmed that women who take commonly prescribed doses of hormone therapy HT are no more likely to gain weight than women not taking hormone therapy HT. This is probably because menopause or aging itself is associated with weight gain , regardless of whether or not a woman takes hormone therapy.
How is hormone therapy HT prescribed? Synthetic progesterone compounds are referred to as progestins. Long term estrogen use without progesterone increases the risk of uterine cancer endometrial cancer , whereas addition of progesterone counteracts this risk. Therefore estrogen without progestin is usually only recommended for women who have had their uterus removed hysterectomy.
Estrogen is available as pills, tablets, patches, creams, mist sprays, or vaginal preparations vaginal rings, vaginal tablets, or vaginal cream. The choice of estrogen preparation recommended by the doctor depends on the women's symptoms. For instance, vaginal creams, vaginal tablets, and vaginal rings are used for vaginal dryness, while pills or patches are used to ease hot flashes.
Estrogen pills are also useful for vaginal dryness and are sometimes used along with vaginal creams, tablets, or rings. Although progestin is usually taken in pill form, it is also available, together with estrogen, in patch form. Doctors may prescribe different schedules for taking hormone therapy HT. Every woman's hormone therapy HT treatment and schedule should be individualized based on her particular situation.
Below are some standard forms of hormone therapy HT that are used:. In order to avoid monthly vaginal bleeding , some women choose to take small doses of estrogen and progesterone together every day. This is called daily continuous therapy. Sometimes, daily continuous therapy can cause some irregular, unexpected vaginal bleeding for the first several months of treatment, especially in younger women entering menopause.
For these women, and for some other women, planned cyclic bleeding is more acceptable. In these women, progesterone is usually added to estrogen for the first 12 calendar days of the month. Hormone therapy HT skin patches are to be worn on a continuous basis. Newer patches need to be changed once or twice per week. Patches are as effective as oral hormone therapy HT for controlling hot flashes. Spray mists for ET are available as a transdermal spray used once daily.
Estrogen vaginal tablets and creams are generally prescribed nightly for 2 weeks, and then reduced to twice per week as a long-term "maintenance therapy. Circulating blood levels of estrogen are slightly increased from vaginal estrogen use, and the long-term safety of vaginal estrogen rings, creams and tablets has not been clearly established for example risk of uterine cancer, heart disease, or breast cancer.
For this reason, occurrence of vaginal bleeding during any type of vaginal estrogen use should be promptly evaluated. Vaginal estrogen rings are approved to treat genital dryness and irritation that can occur due to the lack of estrogen in women after menopause. A higher dose vaginal ring is available to treat hot flashes, so the hormone released from this higher dose ring clearly reaches sufficient levels to affect other parts of the body besides the genital area.
The vaginal ring remains in place for 12 weeks, after which it can be changed by either the woman herself or her physician.
The long-term safety of estrogen rings is not yet clear, but there is a low level of absorption of the hormone into the bloodstream with use of the vaginal estrogen ring. There has been increasing interest in recent years in the use of so-called "bioidentical" hormone therapy for perimenopausal women. Bioidentical hormone preparations are medications that contain hormones that have the same chemical formula as those made naturally in the body. The hormones are created in a laboratory by altering compounds derived from naturally-occurring plant products.
Some of these so-called bioidentical hormone preparations are U. FDA-approved and manufactured by drug companies, while others are made at special pharmacies called compounding pharmacies, which make the preparations on a case-by-case basis for each patient. These individual preparations are not regulated by the FDA, because compounded products are not standardized. Advocates of bioidentical hormone therapy argue that the products, applied as creams or gels, are absorbed into the body in their active form without the need for "first pass" metabolism in the liver , and that their use may avoid potentially dangerous side effects of synthetic hormones used in conventional hormone therapy.
However, studies to establish the long-term safety and effectiveness of these products have not been carried out. Who should take hormone therapy HT?
Who should not take hormone therapy HT? What medical checkups are advised for women on hormone therapy HT? All women receiving hormone therapy HT should undergo a medical checkup every year.
At that time, the doctor or nurse will perform a breast exam and order a mammogram a special X-ray picture of the breasts to check for masses in the breasts that might possibly be cancer. At, or even prior to these check-ups, a woman should discuss her bleeding pattern with her physician to be sure it is within the expected pattern for her specific type of hormone therapy HT.
Other routine screening evaluations may also be performed at this annual check-up. What if a woman decides against hormone therapy HT? If a woman decides against hormone therapy HT , there are other methods to deal with the symptoms of menopause. Although hormone therapy HT is by far superior to other medications in relieving hot flashes, other prescription non-hormonal medications can also reduce hot flashes.
Likewise, personal lubrication products such as a water-soluble jelly not petroleum jelly can be applied to the vagina to reduce dryness. A woman may also want to ask her doctor about non-hormonal prescription osteoporosis medications. These new treatments appear safe and effective in preventing fractures.
What are the signs of menopause? What age does menopause start? Learn about menopause and perimenopause symptoms. Find the latest treatments for menopause. Canker sores are a common complaint, and are small ulcers on the inside of the mouth. Canker sores aren't contagious as opposed to cold sores , and typically last for days usually healing without scarring. A variety of things cause canker sores, for example, medications aspirin, beta blockers, NSAIDs, high blood pressure medication, and antibiotics ; injury to the mouth from dental work, braces, or sports accidents; acidic foods; allergies; and diseases or conditions like celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and lupus.
Canker sores can be cure with home remedies, and prescription and OTC topical and oral medication. Uterine fibroids are benign non-cancerous tumors in the womb uterus. Most uterine fibroids do not cause symptoms; however, if the fibroid is large enough and in the right location, it may cause symptoms of pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, and pressure on the bladder or rectum.
Uterine fibroids that remain small and do not grow usually do not need treatment; however, surgery to remove the fibroid may be necessary. Uterine fibroids do not cause cancer; however, there is a rare, fast-growing cancerous called leiomyosarcoma.
Normal vaginal bleeding menorrhea occurs through the process of menstruation. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who are ovulating regularly most commonly involves excessive, frequent, irregular, or decreased bleeding. Causes of abnormal may arise from a variety of conditions that may include:.