You and Your HormonesSome compounds in the environment can chemically neuter animals by blocking androgens' effects. These antiandrogens block production of androgen hormones or clog receptors, keeping true androgens out. Beta hcg test males group of industrial chemicals known as phthalates can reduce testosterone production in fetal testes causing sex-organ defects and loss of reproductive functions in animals Gray et al. Limited research suggests these chemicals, found in personal care mqle and most soft plastics, may affect human genital development in similar ways. Phthalates are associated with several subtle, yet potentially serious, genital changes in baby boys whose mothers, when pregnant, had elevated male sex hormones called androgens of the chemicals in their urine.
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Some compounds in the environment can chemically neuter animals by blocking androgens' effects. These antiandrogens block production of androgen hormones or clog receptors, keeping true androgens out. A group of industrial chemicals known as phthalates can reduce testosterone production in fetal testes causing sex-organ defects and loss of reproductive functions in animals Gray et al.
Limited research suggests these chemicals, found in personal care products and most soft plastics, may affect human genital development in similar ways. Phthalates are associated with several subtle, yet potentially serious, genital changes in baby boys whose mothers, when pregnant, had elevated levels of the chemicals in their urine. The boys' shortened anus to penis distance, incomplete testes descent, and smaller scrotum and penis may forewarn of infertility or cancer later in life Swan et al.
Animal studies confirm the fungicides vinclozolin and procymidone, the herbicide linuron, and the DDT-insecticide breakdown product p,p'-DDE block androgen receptors and hinder development and function of the penis, testes, epididymis, and other masculine structures in male offspring Gray et al.
Indeed, they are dubbed the male hormones mainly because males make and use more testosterone and other androgens than females. These steroid hormones confer masculinity by triggering and controlling body programs that govern male sexual development and physique. In females, androgens play more subtle roles.
Testosterone is a potent androgen. Steroids are a special kind of fat molecule with a four-ringed, carbon atom backbone or core, like their cholesterol predecessor. A series of chemical changes turns cholesterol into androgen hormones. A series of chemical reactions spurred by proteins called enzymes remove and add groups to cholesterol's polycyclic many-ringed core. These actions transform cholesterol first into the steroid pregnenolone, then into testosterone and other androgens.
In humans and other vertebrates, androgens are made primarily in the male testes, female ovaries, and adrenal glands. Kinds and potencies vary among animal groups. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone beta-hydroxyalpha-androstanone are the most potent androgens in humans and four-legged vertebrates. The weaker androgens androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA occur in small amounts in all vertebrates. Although ketotestosterone is a weak androgen in four-legged vertebrates, it is the most potent variety in bony fishes and sharks.
Receptor binding triggers different chemical signaling systems depending on receptor location. A steroid hormone uniting with a surface receptor starts a lightening-fast chemical relay in the cytoplasm that changes cell chemistry and initiates hormone release, blocks cell death, or nudges the cell from the resting to growth phase of its life cycle.
The proteins drive the cell changes guiding androgen-controlled growth and development Cato et al. Hormones and genetics together guide gender and sexual features in the developing vertebrate embryo. In humans, the Y chromosome first determines the sex as male. Other animals also have sex chromosomes, but in some fish and reptiles, the physical environment, especially temperature of the embryo, is more important for determining male sex.
After male sex is determined, androgens orchestrate growth and development of the male reproductive system, including the penis, testes, prostate, sperm, and other essential features. Later in life, the hormones trigger male puberty, influencing vocals bird songs, amphibian calls, human's deep voice , body ornamentation human facial hair, bird feather color, fish skin color , muscle mass, and behaviors such as sex drive and aggressiveness.
Androgens also influence female sex drive. John Hunter initially described androgenic actions in Berthold transplanted testes from a normal rooster into a castrated rooster. The castrated rooster regained his combs and wattles, his crowing voice, and his fighting behavior Hadley Almost a century later, in , Leopold Ruzicka worked out the chemical structure of the "androgenic principle" from the testes, calling it testosterone Hadley Rapid actions of steroid receptors in cellular signaling pathways.
Effects of environmental antiandrogens on reproductive development in experimental animals. Human Reproduction Update 7: Low doses of the fungicide vinclozolin alter sexual differentiation of the male rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health Upper Saddle River, NJ: Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure.
Environmental Health Perspectives Di n-butyl phthalate impairs cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis in the fetal rat testis through a rapid and reversible mechanism.