Merck SeronoFind information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written for the health care professional. Anabolic steroids are often vagas na deca queimados to enhance merck serono steroids performance and promote muscle growth. When used inappropriately, chronically at high doses and without medical supervision, they can cause erratic and irrational behavior and a wide range of physical adverse effects. Anabolic steroids include testosterone and merck serono steroids drugs chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone that promote muscle growth; numerous drugs are available. Anabolic steroids are used clinically to treat low testosterone levels in male hypogonadism.
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Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written for the health care professional. Anabolic steroids are often used to enhance physical performance and promote muscle growth.
When used inappropriately, chronically at high doses and without medical supervision, they can cause erratic and irrational behavior and a wide range of physical adverse effects.
Anabolic steroids include testosterone and any drugs chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone that promote muscle growth; numerous drugs are available.
Anabolic steroids are used clinically to treat low testosterone levels in male hypogonadism. Additionally, because anabolic steroids are anticatabolic and improve protein utilization, they are sometimes given to burn, bedbound, or other debilitated patients to prevent muscle wasting. Some physicians prescribe anabolic steroids to patients with AIDS-related wasting or with cancer.
However, there are few data to recommend such therapy and little guidance on how supplemental androgens may affect underlying disorders. Testosterone has been reputed to benefit wound healing and muscle injury, although few data support these claims. Anabolic steroids are used illicitly to increase lean muscle mass and strength; resistance training and a certain diet can enhance these effects. There is no direct evidence that anabolic steroids increase endurance or speed, but substantial anecdotal evidence suggests that athletes taking them can perform more frequent high-intensity workouts.
Muscle hypertrophy is unequivocal. Estimates of lifetime incidence of anabolic steroid abuse range from 0. Anabolic steroids have androgenic effects eg, changes in hair or in libido, aggressiveness and anabolic effects eg, increased protein utilization, increased muscle mass. Androgenic effects cannot be separated from the anabolic, but some anabolic steroids have been synthesized to minimize the androgenic effects.
Testosterone is rapidly degraded by the liver; oral testosterone is inactivated too rapidly to be effective, and injectable testosterone must be modified eg, by esterification to retard absorption or delay breakdown.
Analogs modified by alpha-alkylation are often effective orally, but adverse effects may be increased. Transdermal preparations are also available.
Adverse effects vary significantly by dose and drug. Athletes may use doses 10 to 50 times this range. At high doses, some effects are clear; others are equivocal see Adverse Effects of Anabolic Steroids. Uncertainties exist because most studies involve abusers who may not report doses accurately and who also use black market drugs, many of which are counterfeit and contain despite labeling varying doses and substances.
Peliosis hepatitis , adenoma. Athletes may take steroids for a certain period, stop, then start again cycling several times a year. Intermittently stopping the drugs is believed to allow endogenous testosterone levels, sperm count, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to return to normal.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that cycling may decrease harmful effects and the need for increasing drug doses to attain the desired effect.
Athletes frequently use many drugs simultaneously a practice called stacking and alternate routes of administration oral, IM, or transdermal. Increasing the dose through a cycle pyramiding may result in doses 5 to times the physiologic dose. Stacking and pyramiding are intended to increase receptor binding and minimize adverse effects, but these benefits have not been proved.
The most characteristic sign is a rapid increase in muscle mass. The rate and extent of increase are directly related to the doses taken. Patients taking physiologic doses have slow and often unnoticeable growth; those taking megadoses may increase lean body weight by several pounds per month. Increases in energy level and libido in men occur but are more difficult to identify.
Increased acne is common in both sexes; libido may increase or, less commonly, decrease; aggressiveness and appetite may increase. Gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and decreased fertility may occur in males. Virilizing effects eg, alopecia, enlarged clitoris, hirsutism, deepened voice are common among females. Also, breast size may decrease; vaginal mucosa may atrophy; and menstruation may change or stop. Virilization and gynecomastia may be irreversible.
A urine screen usually identifies users of anabolic steroids. Metabolites of anabolic steroids can be detected in urine up to 6 mo even longer for some types of anabolic steroids after the drugs are stopped. Testosterone taken exogenously is indistinguishable from endogenous testosterone.
However, if high levels of testosterone are detected, the ratio between testosterone and epitestosterone an endogenous steroid that chemically is nearly identical to testosterone is measured. Normally, the ratio is 6: The main treatment is cessation of use. Although physical dependence does not occur, psychologic dependence, particularly in competitive bodybuilders, may exist.
Gynecomastia may require surgical reduction. Physicians caring for adolescents and young adults should be alert to the signs of steroid abuse and teach patients about its risks. Education about anabolic steroids should start by the beginning of middle school. Use of programs that teach alternative, healthy ways to increase muscle size and improve performance through good nutrition and weight training techniques may help.
Presenting both risks and benefits of anabolic steroid use seems to be a more effective way to educate adolescents about the negative effects of illicit steroid use. Illness in a foreign country may involve significant difficulties. What proportion of US international travelers requires emergency care? Tap to switch to the Consumer Version. Anabolic Steroids By Gerald F.
This is the Professional Version. Click here for the Consumer Version. Adverse Effects of Anabolic Steroids Clearly shown. Acne, baldness, virilization and hirsutism in females. Psychologic effects usually only with very high doses are often noticed by family members: Wide and erratic mood swings. Amphetamines Was This Page Helpful? Peliosis hepatitis , adenoma Mood disorders with high doses Androgenic effects: Acne, baldness, virilization and hirsutism in females Gonadal suppression decreased sperm count, testicular atrophy Gynecomastia Premature closure of epiphyses.