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This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch.
Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein occasionally a pair of such spur veins branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. This venation pattern varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment.
Tiny samples of Cannabis plants also can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment. All known strains of Cannabis are wind-pollinated  and the fruit is an achene. Cannabis is predominantly dioecious ,   having imperfect flowers , with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants.
Many monoecious varieties have also been described,  in which individual plants bear both male and female flowers. Subdioecy the occurrence of monoecious individuals and dioecious individuals within the same population is widespread. As a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis exhibits many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar.
Dioecious varieties are also preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production. It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops.
Cannabis has been described as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of sex determination among the dioecious plants. Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp , it was first reported by K. Hirata in that an XY sex-determination system is present. A system was first described in Drosophila spp in A system was in use and that furthermore sex was strongly influenced by environmental conditions.
Since then, many different types of sex determination systems have been discovered, particularly in plants. In most cases where the XY system is found it is believed to have evolved recently and independently. Since the s, a number of sex determination models have been proposed for Cannabis. The question of whether heteromorphic sex chromosomes are indeed present is most conveniently answered if such chromosomes were clearly visible in a karyotype.
Cannabis was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards see History of Cytogenetics. Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur in staminate individuals of dioecious "Kentucky" hemp, but were not found in pistillate individuals of the same variety. Dioecious "Kentucky" hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism.
Heterosomes were not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious "Kentucky" hemp, nor in an unidentified German cultivar. These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX.
It is not surprising that male-associated markers are relatively abundant. In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex determination. Environmental sex determination is known to occur in a variety of species.
Cannabis plants produce a group of chemicals called cannabinoids, which produce mental and physical effects when consumed. Cannabinoids , terpenoids , and other compounds are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants.
The genus Cannabis was formerly placed in the nettle Urticaceae or mulberry Moraceae family, and later, along with the genus Humulus hops , in a separate family, the hemp family Cannabaceae sensu stricto. Various types of Cannabis have been described, and variously classified as species , subspecies , or varieties: Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, some of which produce the "high" which may be experienced from consuming marijuana.
There are identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in the cannabis plant,  and at least 85 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the plant. When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial F 1 generation have an intermediate chemotype and produce intermedite amounts of CBD and THC. Female plants of this chemotype may produce enough THC to be utilized for drug production.
Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries.
This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species. The genus Cannabis was first classified using the "modern" system of taxonomic nomenclature by Carl Linnaeus in , who devised the system still in use for the naming of species. Linnaeus was familiar with European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time. In , noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis , which he named Cannabis indica Lam.
Additional Cannabis species were proposed in the 19th century, including strains from China and Vietnam Indo-China assigned the names Cannabis chinensis Delile, and Cannabis gigantea Delile ex Vilmorin. In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study.
The name Cannabis indica was listed in various Pharmacopoeias , and was widely used to designate Cannabis suitable for the manufacture of medicinal preparations. In , Russian botanist D. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis in central Russia is either a variety of C.
Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. However, they did not divide C. In the s, the taxonomic classification of Cannabis took on added significance in North America.
Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis material may not have been C. Attorneys on both sides recruited botanists to provide expert testimony. Among those testifying for the prosecution was Dr. Ernest Small, while Dr.
Schultes and others testified for the defense. The botanists engaged in heated debate outside of court , and both camps impugned the other's integrity. In , Canadian botanist Ernest Small  and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with two subspecies: Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C.
This classification was based on several factors including interfertility, chromosome uniformity, chemotype, and numerical analysis of phenotypic characters. Schultes and coworkers also conducted taxonomic studies of Cannabis in the s, and concluded that stable morphological differences exist that support recognition of at least three species, C. This taxonomic interpretation was embraced by Cannabis aficionados who commonly distinguish narrow-leafed "sativa" strains from wide-leafed "indica" strains.
Molecular analytical techniques developed in the late 20th century are being applied to questions of taxonomic classification. This has resulted in many reclassifications based on evolutionary systematics. Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA RAPD and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis , primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G.
Mahlberg  at Indiana University , conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. In , Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection.
They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC production within the studied populations, and concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C.
In , Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication , and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. He also concluded there is little support to treat C. In September , New Scientist reported that researchers at the Canberra Institute of Technology had identified a new type of Cannabis based on analysis of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA.
Despite advanced analytical techniques, much of the cannabis used recreationally is inaccurately classified. It should also improve classification accuracy for cannabis used recreationally. Legalization coupled with Canadian government Health Canada oversight of production and labelling will likely result in more—and more accurate—testing to determine exact strains and content.
The scientific debate regarding taxonomy has had little effect on the terminology in widespread use among cultivators and users of drug-type Cannabis. Cannabis aficionados recognize three distinct types based on such factors as morphology, native range , aroma, and subjective psychoactive characteristics.
Sativa is the most widespread variety, which is usually tall, laxly branched, and found in warm lowland regions. Indica designates shorter, bushier plants adapted to cooler climates and highland environments. Ruderalis is the informal name for the short plants that grow wild in Europe and Central Asia.
The use of Cannabis as a mind-altering drug has been documented by archaeological finds in prehistoric societies in Eurasia and Africa. In , cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards imported it to Chile for its use as fiber. In North America, cannabis, in the form of hemp, was grown for use in rope, clothing and paper. Cannabis is a popular recreational drug around the world, only behind alcohol , caffeine and tobacco.
In the United States alone, it is believed that over million Americans have tried cannabis, with 25 million Americans having used it within the past year. The psychoactive effects of cannabis are known to have a triphasic nature. Primary psychoactive effects include a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, euphoria from its main psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol.
Secondary psychoactive effects, such as a facility for philosophical thinking, introspection and metacognition have been reported among cases of anxiety and paranoia. Normal cognition is restored after approximately three hours for larger doses via a smoking pipe , bong or vaporizer.
After 24 hours to a few days, minuscule psychoactive effects may be felt, depending on dosage, frequency and tolerance to the drug. Various forms of the drug cannabis exist, including extracts such as hashish and hash oil  which, because of appearance, are more susceptible to adulterants when left unregulated.
Cannabidiol CBD , which has no psychotropic effects by itself  although sometimes showing a small stimulant effect, similar to caffeine ,  attenuates, or reduces  the higher anxiety levels caused by THC alone. According to Delphic analysis by British researchers in , cannabis has a lower risk factor for dependence compared to both nicotine and alcohol. Risk of adverse outcomes from cannabis use may be reduced by implementation of evidence-based education and intervention tools communicated to the public with practical regulation measures.
Medical cannabis or medical marijuana refers to the use of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids , to treat disease or improve symptoms. Short-term use increases both minor and major adverse effects. The term hemp is used to name the durable soft fiber from the Cannabis plant stem stalk. Cannabis sativa cultivars are used for fibers due to their long stems; Sativa varieties may grow more than six metres tall. However, hemp can refer to any industrial or foodstuff product that is not intended for use as a drug.
Many countries regulate limits for psychoactive compound THC concentrations in products labeled as hemp. Cannabis for industrial uses is valuable in tens of thousands of commercial products, especially as fibre  ranging from paper , cordage , construction material and textiles in general, to clothing. Hemp is stronger and longer-lasting than cotton.
It also is a useful source of foodstuffs hemp milk, hemp seed, hemp oil and biofuels. Hemp has been used by many civilizations, from China to Europe and later North America during the last 12, years. The Cannabis plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years across many cultures. He is thought to have belonged to the Jushi culture recorded in the area centuries later in the Hanshu , Chap 96B. An international team demonstrated that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol , the psychoactive component of cannabis.
The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. This is the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent. Settlements which date from c. By the 10th century CE, it has been suggested that it was referred to by some in India as "food of the gods".
One of the earliest to use this plant in medical purposes was Korakkar , one of the 18 Siddhas. In Buddhism , cannabis is generally regarded as an intoxicant and may be a hindrance to development of meditation and clear awareness. In ancient Germanic culture , Cannabis was associated with the Norse love goddess, Freya. In modern times, the Rastafari movement has embraced Cannabis as a sacrament. Rastafarians tend to be among the biggest consumers of modern Cannabis use.
Cannabis is frequently used among Sufis  — the mystical interpretation of Islam that exerts strong influence over local Muslim practices in Bangladesh , India , Indonesia , Turkey , and Pakistan. Cannabis preparations are frequently used at Sufi festivals in those countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the plant genus. For use as a psychoactive drug, see Cannabis drug. For other uses, see Cannabis disambiguation.
Dense raceme of female flowers typical of drug-type varieties of Cannabis. Cannabis and religion and History of medical cannabis. Cannabis portal Hemp portal. The Medicinal Uses of Cannabis and Cannabinoids.
United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 13 February Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Marijuana and the Cannabinoids. Retrieved 2 May Cannabinoids in Nature and Medicine. Retrieved 21 August World Drug Report pdf. Retrieved 1 August Retrieved 17 February Marijuana Botany , 2nd ed. Canadian Journal of Botany. The Molecular Biology of Dioecious Plants". Trends in Plant Science. Linguistic-Cultural Implications", Economic Botany United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
Cristiana; Cattivelli, Luigi; Ranalli, P. A morphological and molecular study". Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 10 February Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. Journal of Industrial Hemp. Journal of the Society of Agriculture and Forestry.
American Journal of Botany. Cannabidiol CBD oil is marketed as a non-psychoactive, smoke-free treatment for everything from eczema to Parkinson's disease.
As CBC News reports today , some of CBD-oil hawkers in Canada claim their product is " per cent legal," potentially fooling their customers into breaking the law when they buy it. It's not hard to see why Canadians might get confused about the facts.
CBD can be extracted from legally-grown, industrial hemp — that is, cannabis plants bred to contain negligible levels of psychoactive THC. As a result, some U. Even though you can buy hemp oil in Canadian grocery stores, that oil is extracted from hemp seeds, which contain very little CBD. It's delicious and nutritious, but not a controlled substance. Any product containing meaningful levels of CBD would have to be extracted from other parts of the cannabis plant, and would therefore be subject to Canada's medical cannabis regulations.
It's definitely illegal for an individual to import hemp-derived CBD from the U. This is confusing stuff, and the media doesn't always get it right. And "Hemp Rain," the brand of CBD water in question, appears to be sold by a company based in Wyoming, suggesting the product was imported illegally into Canada.
If journalists can't figure out the truth about whether a given CBD product is legal or not, how can ordinary Canadians? Here's the bottom line: Right now, CBD oil is only legal in Canada if it's sold by a licensed cannabis producer directly to a medical cannabis user registered with Health Canada.
The murky world of CBD oil
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