Cannabidiol, or CBD, is the second most prevalent cannabinoid and active Anderson, Jill. Uploaded September 11, [March 28, ]. http://www. carinsurancequote1k.top November 9, by Jill Anderson, in CBD (Cannabidiol). How About That Impulse Control? Let's face it: we've all gotten a little impulsive at some point in our. PDF | Cannabidiol (CBD), a Cannabis sativa constituent, is a Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 12(4) · September with 2, Reads Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, et al. Cannabidiol: Jill Glasspool Malone .. February · Depression and Anxiety. William T. Anderson.
in September CBD Jill 18, 2017 Anderson, (Cannabidiol) by
None of them were able to bring his condition under control and many of them caused harmful side effects. As a child, Zaki experienced insomnia, anorexia, weight gain, and hair loss as a result of these potent pharmaceutical drugs. And as a result of long term steroid use, he had bone loss and cataracts! His parents also tried numerous non-FDA-approved treatments and every alternative therapy available, but they all failed to work.
By the end of , Zaki was receiving palliative care and eventually the family took a Make-A-Wish trip to Disneyworld — thinking it would be their last trip as a family. Unlike the psychoactive component in marijuana called THC, she had learned that cannabidiol or CBD was non-intoxicating and was convinced that it had a much better safety profile than the drugs she was giving her son. She also found studies that showed it was an anti-inflammatory, a neuroprotectant, and an antioxidant.
He was given his first dose of CBD extract in liquid form on July 19, Almost instantly, and with just the first dose, he went from having seizures every minutes to not having a seizure for 48 hours! Although it took about 3 months to get the dosage right, Zaki eventually had his last big seizure on October 3, The change has been nothing short of amazing. Zaki is now 13 years old and developmentally, he is light years ahead of where he was just a few years ago.
He is now a happy, funny, energetic young man with a brand new lease on life. For him, CBD has been a miracle drug. After their miraculous experiences with CBD, they joined forces in this new venture to provide support services and resources for families who are using cannabinoid therapies. Today, The Realm of Caring Foundation funds and conducts research on cannabis and its applications. They also educate consumers on different products and inform healthcare professionals about options for their patients.
They are also advocates for the legal access to medical cannabis throughout the country. Numerous clinical studies into the therapeutic effects of cannabidiol CBD have shown the safe, non-addictive and non-intoxicating treatment for these symptoms of menopause, including muscle spasms, chronic pain, inflammation, Cannabidiol CBD has been shown to have significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anxiolytic activity without the psychoactive effect high of deltaTHC Built in by the huge conglomerate British Sugar, the leading UK beet sugar producer, as a way to utilize excess CO Do you want to know more about CBD cannabidiol?
Find out from the professionals! Subscribe to the IwantmyCBD. What is Doose Syndrome? Children with Epilepsy and Seizures Because his brain was under constant assault, Zaki also fell far behind developmentally.
An orally active Cannabis extract with high content in cannabidiol attenuates chemical induced intestinal inflammation and hypermotility in the mouse. Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease IBD patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol CBD , here named CBD BDS for CBD botanical drug substance, on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation.
Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid DNBS. Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Several studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of cannabinoids on various tumours, together with their anti-angiogenic properties.
The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol CBD effectively inhibits the growth of different types of tumours in vitro and in vivo and down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signals produced by glioma cells. As its anti-angiogenic properties have not been thoroughly investigated to date, and given its very favourable pharmacological and toxicological profile, here, we evaluated the ability of CBD to modulate tumour angiogenesis. Firstly, we evaluated the effect of CBD on human umbilical vein endothelial cell HUVEC proliferation and viability - through [3- 4,5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and FACS analysis - and in vitro motility - both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound-healing assay.
These effects were associated with the down-modulation of several angiogenesis-related molecules. This study reveals that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells supports the hypothesis that CBD has potential as an effective agent in cancer therapy. Mechanisms of cannabidiol neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic newborn pigs: The mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol CBD were studied in vivo using a hypoxic-ischemic HI brain injury model in newborn pigs.
In both investigations, the absolute configuration is given as R,R, referring to Mechoulam et al. In the latter, the absolute configuration was identified by chemical means. Using the advantages of modern single-crystal X-ray diffractometers such as area detectors and high-intensity radiation sources, a high-quality structure determination including the absolute configuration was possible and is shown in this work. Full Text Available Cannabis contains the psychoactive component delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol delta9-THC, and the non-psychoactive components cannabidiol CBD , cannabinol, and cannabigerol.
It is well-known that delta9-THC and other cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury. Additionally, delta9-THC also mediates psychological effects through the activation of the CB1 receptor in the central nervous system.
In addition to the CB1 receptor agonists, cannabis also contains therapeutically active components which are CB1 receptor independent. In the past five years, an increasing number of publications have focused on the discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD. The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB1 receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity.
Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance. In this review, we will discuss the therapeutic possibility of CBD as a cerebroprotective agent, highlighting recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms, and therapeutic time window of CBD in ischemic stroke.
Safety and side effects of cannabidiol , a Cannabis sativa constituent. Cannabidiol CBD , a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties.
However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline.
The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", " cannabidiol " and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature , does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters.
Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects. Beyond the CB1 Receptor: Is Cannabidiol the Answer for Disorders of Motivation? The Cannabis sativa plant has been used to treat various physiological and psychiatric conditions for millennia. Current research is focused on isolating potentially therapeutic chemical constituents from the plant for use in the treatment of many central nervous system disorders.
Of particular interest is the primary nonpsychoactive constituent cannabidiol CBD. However, it has been shown to be active in a numerous pharmacological assays, including mice tests for anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression and schizophrenia.
In human trials the doses of CBD needed to achieve effects in anxiety and schizophrenia are high. We report now the synthesis of 3 fluorinated CBD derivatives, one of which, 4'-F- CBD HUF 1, is considerably more potent than CBD in behavioral assays in mice predictive of anxiolytic, antidepressant, antipsychotic and anti-compulsive activity. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol.
Aldose reductase ALR2 is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors ARIs is currently very important. The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes.
Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs.
The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors.
These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. Patients recovered from Ebola virus infection may experience short- and long-term physical, neuropsychological and social sequelae, including arthralgia, musculoskeletal pain, ophthalmic inflammation, auditory problems, fatigue, confusion, insomnia, short-term memory impairment, anxiety, depression and anorexia, all lasting from two weeks to more than two years.
Currently there are no treatments for post Ebola sequelae. CBD has anti-inflammatory actions in various animal models. Clinical studies have shown that oral administration of CBD , compared to placebo, significantly reduces anxiety, has antinociceptive and anticonvulsant actions, and may be therapeutic for insomnia. Overall, CBD has a number of pharmacological effects that may significantly improve the mental and somatic health of patients suffering from post Ebola sequelae.
In humans, CBD , at therapeutic doses, does not: Mild sedation and nausea are the most commonly reported adverse effects associated with CBD. CBD , based on its pharmacological effects and favorable safety profile, should be considered as a treatment for individuals with post Ebola sequelae.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.. To review and describe studies of the non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol CBD , as an anxiolytic drug and discuss its possible mechanisms of action. The reference lists of the publications included, review articles, and book chapters were handsearched for additional references. Experimental animal and human studies were included, with no time restraints.
Studies using animal models of anxiety and involving healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce anxiety in patients with social anxiety disorder. Future clinical trials involving patients with different anxiety disorders are warranted, especially of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorders.
The adequate therapeutic window of CBD and the precise mechanisms involved in its anxiolytic action remain to be determined. Cannabidiol as potential treatment in refractory pediatric epilepsy. In recent years there has been great scientific and public interest focused on the therapeutic potential of compounds derived from cannabis for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in children. From in vitro and in vivo studies on animal models, cannabidiol CBD appears to be a promising anticonvulsant drug with a favorable side-effect profile.
In humans, CBD efficacy and safety is not supported by well-designed trials and its use has been described by anecdotal reports. It will be necessary to investigate CBD safety, pharmacokinetics and interaction with other anti-epileptic drugs AEDs alongside performing double-blinded placebo-controlled trials in order to obtain conclusive data on its efficacy and safety in children.
Cannabidiol normalizes caspase 3, synaptophysin, and mitochondrial fission protein DNM1L expression levels in rats with brain iron overload: We have recently shown that chronic treatment with cannabidiol CBD was able to recover memory deficits induced by brain iron loading in a dose-dependent manner in rats.
Brain iron accumulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, and has been related to cognitive deficits in animals and human subjects.
Deficits in synaptic energy supply have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, evidencing the key role played by mitochondria in maintaining viable neural cells and functional circuits.
It has also been shown that brains of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases have increased expression of apoptosisrelated proteins and specific DNA fragmentation. Here, we have analyzed the expression level of brain proteins involved with mitochondrial fusion and fission mechanisms DNM1L and OPA1 , the main integral transmembrane protein of synaptic vesicles synaptophysin , and caspase 3, an apoptosis-related protein, to gain a better understanding of the potential of CBD in restoring the damage caused by iron loading in rats.
We found that CBD rescued iron-induced effects, bringing hippocampal DNM1L, caspase 3, and synaptophysin levels back to values comparable to the control group. Our results suggest that iron affects mitochondrial dynamics, possibly trigging synaptic loss and apoptotic cell death and indicate that CBD should be considered as a potential molecule with memory-rescuing and neuroprotective properties to be used in the treatment of cognitive deficits observed in neurodegenerative disorders.
Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease. Based on encouraging preliminary findings, cannabidiol CBD , a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, was evaluated for symptomatic efficacy and safety in 15 neuroleptic-free patients with Huntington's Disease HD.
A comparison of the effects of CBD and placebo on chorea severity and other therapeutic outcome variables, and on a Cannabis side effect inventory, clinical lab tests and other safety outcome variables, indicated no significant p greater than 0. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol.
Colon cancer is a major public health problem. Cannabis-based medicines are useful adjunctive treatments in cancer patients. CBD botanical drug substance, on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and in experimental models of colon cancer in vivo. In vivo, the effect of CBD BDS was examined on the preneoplastic lesions aberrant crypt foci , polyps and tumours induced by the carcinogenic agent azoxymethane AOM as well as in a xenograft model of colon cancer in mice.
The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of Cannabis-based medicines in cancer patients. Distinct neurobehavioural effects of cannabidiol in transmembrane domain neuregulin 1 mutant mice. During treatment and 48 h after withdrawal we measured behaviour, whole blood CBD concentrations and autoradiographic receptor binding. Altered pharmacokinetics in mutant mice could not explain our findings since no genotype differences existed in CBD blood concentrations.
Here we demonstrate that Nrg1 modulates acute and long-term neurobehavioural effects of CBD , which does not reverse the schizophrenia-relevant phenotypes. Deuterated d3 internal standards were added to 1-mL samples. Preparation involved acetonitrile precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction hexane: Selected reaction monitoring was employed.
Blood samples were provided from a marijuana smoking study two participants and a CBD ingestion study eight participants. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: Preparation involved acetonitrile precipitation, liquid—liquid extraction hexane: Here we review preclinical and clinical data outlining the therapeutic efficacy of CBD for the treatment of motivational disorders such as drug addiction, anxiety, and depression. Across studies, findings suggest promising treatment effects and potentially overlapping mechanisms of action for CBD in these disorders and indicate the need for further systematic investigation of the viability of CBD as a psychiatric pharmacotherapy.
Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Objective To present a summary of current scientific evidence about the cannabinoid, cannabidiol CBD with regards to their relevance to epilepsy and other selected neuropsychiatric disorders.
Methods We summarize the presentations from a conference in which invited participants reviewed relevant aspects of the physiology, mechanisms of action, pharmacology and data from studies with animal models and human subjects. Results Cannabis has been used to treat disease since ancient times. CBD is anticonvulsant in many acute animal models but there is limited data in chronic models.
CBD has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. CBD appears to be well tolerated in humans but small and methodologically limited studies of CBD in human epilepsy have been inconclusive. More recent anecdotal reports of high-ratio CBD: Significance CBD bears investigation in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia, addiction and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
However, we lack data from well-powered double-blind randomized, controlled studies on the efficacy of pure CBD for any disorder. Initial dose-tolerability and double-blind randomized, controlled studies focusing on target intractable epilepsy populations such as patients with. Clinical experience with THC: CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity. Over a month timeframe, THC: CBD spray was initiated in patients. Mean follow-up was 9 months.
CBD spray was used as add-on therapy in 95 patients and as monotherapy in 25 patients to achieve best-possible therapeutic results. CBD spray for less than 60 days. Main reasons for treatment discontinuation were: No new safety signals were noted with THC: CBD spray during the evaluation period. CBD spray was effective and well tolerated as add-on therapy or as monotherapy in a relevant proportion of patients with resistant MS spasticity. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC?
Full Text Available The recreational use of cannabis can have persistent adverse effects on mental health. Deltatetrahydrocannabinol THC is the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and most, if not all, of the effects associated with the use of cannabis are caused by THC.
Recent studies have suggested a possible protective effect of another cannabinoid, cannabidiol CBD. Based on the titles and abstracts, an initial selection was made. The reference lists of the publications identified in this manner were examined for additional references. Cannabis is not a safe drug. Depending on how often someone uses, the age of onset, the potency of the cannabis that is used and someone's individual sensitivity, the recreational use of cannabis may cause permanent psychological disorders.
Most recreational users will never be faced with such persistent mental illness, but in some individuals cannabis use leads to undesirable effects: However, the question remains of how the laboratory results translate to the types of cannabis that are encountered by real-world recreational users.
Efficacy of artisanal preparations of cannabidiol for the treatment of epilepsy: Practical experiences in a tertiary medical center. Medically refractory epilepsy continues to be a challenge worldwide, and despite an increasing number of medical therapies, approximately 1 in 3 patients continues to have seizures.
Cannabidiol CBD , one of many constituents of the Cannabis sativa or marijuana plant, has received renewed interest in the treatment of epilepsy. Although randomized controlled trials of CBD are ongoing and promising, data regarding artisanal formulations of CBD are minimal and largely anecdotal. Here, we report a retrospective study to define the efficacy of artisanal CBD preparations in children with epilepsy.
Given the known interaction between CBD and clobazam, we also conducted a subgroup comparison to determine if clobazam use was related to any beneficial effects of CBD. Additionally, we compared response rates with CBD and with clobazam alone within an overlapping patient cohort. A pediatric cohort with epilepsy of patients was identified through a medical record search for patients using CBD oil. The responder rate for clobazam was similar. Full Text Available Cannabidiol CBD , a major phytocannabinoid constituent of cannabis, is attracting growing attention in medicine for its anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties.
However, up to this point, a comprehensive literature review of the effects of CBD in humans is lacking. The aim of the present systematic review is to examine the randomized and crossover studies that administered CBD to healthy controls and to clinical patients. Both monotherapy and combination studies e. A total of 34 studies were identified: Potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic explanations for these results are discussed.
Effects of cannabidiol on contractions and calcium signaling in rat ventricular myocytes. Cannabidiol CBD , a major nonpsychotropic cannabinoid found in Cannabis plant, has been shown to influence cardiovascular functions under various physiological and pathological conditions.
In the present study, the effects of CBD on contractility and electrophysiological properties of rat ventricular myocytes were investigated. Video edge detection was used to measure myocyte shortening. Radioligand binding was employed to study pharmacological characteristics of CBD binding. Radioligand studies indicated that the specific binding of [ 3 H]Isradipine, was not altered significantly by CBD.
The non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid, cannabidiol affects cholesterol metabolism-related genes in microglial cells. Cannabidiol CBD is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that is clinically used in a 1: Our group previously reported that CBD exerts anti-inflammatory effects on microglial cells.
In addition, we found that CBD treatment increases the accumulation of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine AEA , thus enhancing endocannabinoid signaling. Here we proceeded to investigate the effects of CBD on the modulation of lipid-related genes in microglial cells. We report that CBD significantly upregulated the mRNAs of the enzymes sterol-O-acyl transferase Soat2 , which synthesizes cholesteryl esters, and of sterol hydroxylase Cyp27a1.
CBD treatment modulates cholesterol homeostasis in microglial cells, and pretreatment with MBCD reverses this effect without interfering with CBD 's anti-inflammatory effects. Cannabidiol CBD is a cannabinoid component of marijuana that has no significant activity at cannabinoid receptors or psychoactive effects. There is considerable interest in CBD as a therapy for epilepsy. Almost a third of epilepsy patients are not adequately controlled by clinically available anti-seizure drugs ASDs.
Initial studies appear to demonstrate that CBD preparations may be a useful treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy.
Motor impairment assessed in conjunction with the acute seizure models showed that CBD exerted seizure protection at non-impairing doses. However, further preclinical and clinical studies are needed to determine the potential for CBD to address the unmet needs in pharmacoresistant epilepsy.
Biotransformation of cannabidiol in mice. Identification of new acid metabolites. The in vivo metabolism of cannabidiol CBD was investigated in mice. Following the ip administration of CBD to mice, livers were removed and metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate prior to partial purification on Sephadex LH columns.
Fractions from the columns were converted into trimethylsilyl, d9-trimethylsilyl, and methylester-trimethylsilyl derivatives for analysis by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, metabolites containing carboxylic acid and ketone functional groups were reduced to alcohols with lithium aluminum deuteride before trimethylsilation.
A total of 22 metabolites were characterized, 14 of which had not been reported previously. The metabolites could be categorized as follows: The most significant biotransformations were glucuronide conjugation and, to a lesser extent, formation of CBD oic acid. Evidence suggests that the nonpsychotropic cannabis-derived compound, cannabidiol CBD , has antineoplastic activity in multiple types of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme GBM.
DNA-damaging agents remain the main standard of care treatment available for patients diagnosed with GBM. Here we studied the antiproliferative and cell-killing activity of CBD alone and in combination with DNA-damaging agents temozolomide, carmustine, or cisplatin in several human GBM cell lines and in mo Caffeine protects against memory loss induced by high and non-anxiolytic dose of cannabidiol in adult zebrafish Danio rerio.
Cannabidiol CBD has been investigated in a wide spectrum of clinical approaches due to its psychopharmacological properties. CBD has low affinity for cannabinoid neuroreceptors and agonistic properties to 5-HT receptors. An interaction between cannabinoid and purinergic receptor systems has been proposed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate CBD properties on memory behavioral and locomotor parameters and the effects of pre-treatment of adenosine receptor blockers on CBD impacts on memory using adult zebrafish.
Also, acute block of adenosine receptors was performed in co-administration with CBD exposure in the memory assessment. CBD effects on memory were partially prevented by co-treatment with a specific A2A adenosine receptor antagonist when given prior to or after the training session, while CBD effects after the training session were fully prevented by adenosine A1 receptor antagonist.
These results indicated that zebrafish have responses to CBD anxiolytic properties that are comparable to other animal models, and high doses changed memory retention in a way dependent on adenosine. The plant Cannabis sativa, commonly called cannabis or marijuana, has been used for its psychotropic and mind-altering side effects for millennia.
There has been growing attention in recent years on its potential therapeutic efficacy as municipalities and legislative bodies in the United States, Canada, and other countries grapple with enacting policy to facilitate the use of cannabis or its constituents for medical purposes.
THC is thought to produce the main psychoactive effects of cannabis, while CBD does not appear to have similar effects. In this article, we review the available evidence on the pharmacology and behavioral interactions of THC and CBD from preclinical and human studies, particularly with reference to anxiety and psychosis-like symptoms. Both THC and CBD , as well as other cannabinoid molecules, are currently being evaluated for medicinal purposes, separately and in combination.
Future cannabis-related policy decisions should include consideration of scientific findings, including the individual and interactive effects of CBD and THC. Cannabidiol prevents motor and cognitive impairments induced by reserpine in rats. Full Text Available Cannabidiol CBD is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that presents antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects.
The present study investigated whether CBD administration would attenuate reserpine-induced motor and cognitive impairments in rats. Male Wistar rats received four injections of CBD 0. Locomotor activity, vacuous chewing movements and catalepsy were assessed from day 1 to day 7. This case study illustrates the use of cannabidiol CBD oil to decrease the addictive use of marijuana and provide anxiolytic and sleep benefits.
Addiction to marijuana is a chronic, relapsing disorder, which is becoming a prevalent condition in the United States. The most abundant compound in the marijuana, which is called tetrahydrocannabinol THC , has been widely studied and known for its psychoactive properties. The second most abundant component—CBD—has been suggested to have the medic Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis OA is a multifactorial joint disease, which includes joint degeneration, intermittent inflammation, and peripheral neuropathy. Cannabidiol CBD is a noneuphoria producing constituent of cannabis that has the potential to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBD is anti-nociceptive in OA, and whether inhibition of inflammation by CBD could prevent the development of OA pain and joint neuropathy. Osteoarthritis was induced in male Wistar rats g by intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate MIA; 3 mg.
On day 14 end-stage OA , joint afferent mechanosensitivity was assessed using in vivo electrophysiology, whereas pain behaviour was measured by von Frey hair algesiometry and dynamic incapacitance. To investigate acute joint inflammation, blood flow and leukocyte trafficking were measured on day 1 after MIA. Joint nerve myelination was calculated by G-ratio analysis. Prophylactic CBD treatment prevented the later development of pain and nerve damage in these OA joints.
These findings suggest that CBD may be a safe, useful therapeutic for treating OA joint neuropathic pain. GW Pharmaceuticals is undertaking a major research programme in the UK to develop and market distinct cannabis-based prescription medicines [THC: The cannabis for this programme is grown in a secret location in the UK. It is expected that the product will be marketed in the US in late The company is investigating their use in three delivery systems, including sublingual spray, sublingual tablet and inhaled but not smoked dosage forms.
The technology is protected by patent applications. GW is also developing a specialist security technology that will be incorporated in all its drug delivery systems. This technology allows for the recording and remote monitoring of patient usage to prevent any potential abuse of its cannabis-based medicines. GW plans to enter into agreements with other companies following phase III development, to secure the best commercialisation terms for its cannabis-based medicines.
The drug will be marketed under the Sativex brand name. This agreement also provides Bayer with an option to expand their license to include the European Union and certain world markets. GW was granted a clinical trial exemption certificate by the Medicines Control Agency to conduct clinical studies with cannabis-based medicines in the UK. The exemption includes investigations in the relief of pain of neurological origin and defects of neurological function in the following indications: CBD -enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience.
To describe the experience of five Israeli pediatric epilepsy clinics treating children and adolescents diagnosed as having intractable epilepsy with a regimen of medical cannabis oil. A retrospective study describing the effect of cannabidiol CBD -enriched medical cannabis on children with epilepsy. The selected formula contained CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol at a ratio of Seizure frequency was assessed by parental report during clinical visits.
CBD treatment yielded a significant positive effect on seizure load. In addition, we observed improvement in behavior and alertness, language, communication, motor skills and sleep. Adverse reactions included somnolence, fatigue, gastrointestinal disturbances and irritability leading to withdrawal of cannabis use in 5 patients. The results of this multicenter study on CBD treatment for intractable epilepsy in a population of children and adolescents are highly promising.
Further prospective, well-designed clinical trials using enriched CBD medical cannabis are warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Several antiepileptic drugs AEDs , about 25, are currently clinically available for the treatment of patients with epilepsy. Despite this armamentarium and the many recently introduced AEDs, no major advances have been achieved considering the number of drug resistant patients, while many benefits have been indeed obtained for other clinical outcomes e.
Cannabinoids have long been studied for their potential therapeutical use and more recently phytocannabinoids have been considered a valuable tool for the treatment of several neurological disorders including epilepsy. Among this wide class, the most studied is cannabidiol CBD considering its lack of psychotropic effects and its anticonvulsant properties. Analyse the currently available literature on CBD also in light of other data on phytocannabinoids, reviewing data spanning from the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic to clinical evidences.
Several preclinical studies have tried to understand the mechanism of action of CBD , which still remains largely not understood. CBD has shown significant anticonvulsant effects mainly in acute animal models of seizures; beneficial effects were reported also in animal models of epileptogenesis and chronic models of epilepsy, although not substantial.
In contrast, data coming from some studies raise questions on the effects of other cannabinoids and above all marijuana. There is indeed sufficient supporting data for clinical development and important antiepileptic effects and the currently ongoing clinical studies will permit the real usefulness of CBD and possibly other cannabinoids.
Undoubtedly, several issues also need to be addressed in the next future e. Finally, shading light on the mechanism of action and the study of other cannabinoids might represent an advantage for future developments. Cannabidiol exhibits anxiolytic but not antipsychotic property evaluated in the social interaction test. Cannabidiol CBD , a non-psychotomimetic compound of the Cannabis sativa, has been reported to have central therapeutic actions, such as antipsychotic and anxiolytic effects.
We have recently reported that Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats SHRs present a deficit in social interaction that is ameliorated by atypical antipsychotics. In addition, SHRs present a hyperlocomotion that is reverted by typical and atypical antipsychotics, suggesting that this strain could be useful to study negative symptoms modeled by a decrease in social interaction and positive symptoms modeled by hyperlocomotion of schizophrenia as well as the effects of potential antipsychotics drugs.
At the same time, an increase in social interaction in control animals similar to that induced by benzodiazepines is used to screen potential anxiolytic drugs. However, the hyperlocomotion and the deficit in social interaction displayed by SHRs were not altered by any dose of CBD.
Our results do not support an antipsychotic property of cannabidiol on symptoms-like behaviors in SHRs but reinforce the anxiolytic profile of this compound in control rats. Antitumor effects of cannabidiol , a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines. Recently, cannabinoids CBs have been shown to possess antitumor properties. Because the psychoactivity of cannabinoid compounds limits their medicinal usage, we undertook the present study to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative ability of cannabidiol CBD , a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid compound, on U87 and U human glioma cell lines.
The addition of CBD to the culture medium led to a dramatic drop of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism [3- 4,5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide test] and viability in glioma cells, in a concentration-dependent manner that was already evident 24 h after CBD exposure, with an apparent IC 50 of 25 microM. The antiproliferative effect of CBD was partially prevented by the CB2 receptor antagonist N-[ 1S -endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2,2,1]heptanyl] 4-chloromethylphenyl 4-methylbenzyl -pyrazolecarboxamide SR; SR2 and alpha-tocopherol.
By contrast, the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist N- piperidinyl 4-chlorophenyl 2,4-dichlorophenyl methyl-1H-pyrazolecarboximide hydrochloride SR; SR1 , capsazepine vanilloid receptor antagonist , the inhibitors of ceramide generation, or pertussis toxin did not counteract CBD effects. We also show, for the first time, that the antiproliferative effect of CBD was correlated to induction of apoptosis, as determined by cytofluorimetric analysis and single-strand DNA staining, which was not reverted by cannabinoid antagonists.
Finally, CBD , administered s. In conclusion, the nonpsychoactive CBD was able to produce a significant antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo, thus suggesting a possible application of CBD as an antineoplastic agent. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma nbl is one of the most common solid cancers in children. Prognosis in advanced nbl is still poor despite aggressive multimodality therapy.
Furthermore, survivors experience severe long-term multi-organ sequelae. Hence, the identification of new therapeutic strategies is of utmost importance. Cannabinoids and their derivatives have been used for years in folk medicine and later in the field of palliative care. Recently, they were found to show pharmacologic activity in cancer, including cytostatic, apoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects.
We set out to experimentally determine the effects of those compounds on viability, invasiveness, cell cycle distribution, and programmed cell death in human nbl SK-N-SH cells. Both compounds have antitumourigenic activity in vitro and impeded the growth of tumour xenografts in vivo.
Of the two cannabinoids tested, cbd was the more active. Treatment with cbd reduced the viability and invasiveness of treated tumour cells in vitro and induced apoptosis as demonstrated by morphology changes, sub-G1 cell accumulation, and annexin V assay.
Moreover, cbd elicited an increase in activated caspase 3 in treated cells and tumour xenografts. Our results demonstrate the antitumourigenic action of cbd on nbl cells. Because cbd is a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid that appears to be devoid of side effects, our results support its exploitation as an effective anticancer drug in the management of nbl.
Full Text Available Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease IBD patients. Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain and liver after the oral treatments were measured by HPLC coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility.
Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally in a dose-related fashion or orally only at one dose. In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation.
Full Text Available Animal studies and preliminary clinical trials have shown that cannabidiol -enriched extracts may have beneficial effects for children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. However, these compounds are not yet registered as medicines by regulatory agencies. We describe the cases of two children with treatment-resistant epilepsy Case A with left frontal dysplasia and Case B with Dravet Syndrome with initial symptom improvement after the introduction of CBD extracts followed by seizure worsening after a short time.
These cases support pre-clinical and preliminary clinical evidence suggesting that cannabidiol may be effective for some patients with epilepsy. Moreover, the cases highlight the need for randomized clinical trials using high-quality and reliable substances to ascertain the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids as medicines.
The second most abundant component- CBD -has been suggested to have the medicinal effects of decreasing anxiety, improving sleep, and other neuro-protective effects.
The mechanism of action for CBD has been suggested to be antagonistic to the psychoactive properties of THC in many locations within the central nervous system. Such action raises the issue of whether it might be beneficial to use CBD in isolation to facilitate withdrawal of marijuana use.
The specific use of CBD for marijuana reduction has not been widely studied. The patient was a y-old male who presented with a long-standing diagnosis of bipolar disorder and a daily addiction to marijuana use. In the described intervention, the only change made to the patient's treatment was the addition of CBD oil with the dosage gradually decreasing from 24 to 18 mg.
With use of the CBD oil, the patient reported being less anxious, as well as settling into a regular pattern of sleep. He also indicated that he had not used any marijuana since starting the CBD oil. With the decrease in the dosage to 18 mg, the patient was able to maintain his nonuse of marijuana. Reprint of "Caffeine protects against memory loss induced by high and non-anxiolytic dose of cannabidiol in adult zebrafish Danio rerio ". Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration.
Full Text Available Disc degeneration is a multifactorial process that involves hypoxia, inflammation, neoinnervation, accelerated catabolism, and reduction in water and glycosaminoglycan content. Cannabidiol is the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa with protective and anti-inflammatory properties. However, possible therapeutic effects of cannabidiol on intervertebral disc degeneration have not been investigated yet.
The present study investigated the effects of cannabidiol intradiscal injection in the coccygeal intervertebral disc degeneration induced by the needle puncture model using magnetic resonance imaging MRI and histological analyses.
Disc injury was induced in the tail of male Wistar rats via a single needle puncture. The discs selected for injury were punctured percutaneously using a gauge needle. MRI and histological evaluation were employed to assess the results.
The effects of intradiscal injection of cannabidiol 30, 60 or nmol injected immediately after lesion were analyzed acutely 2 days by MRI. The needle puncture produced a significant disc injury detected both by MRI and histological analyses.
Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the effects of disc injury induced by the needle puncture. Considering that cannabidiol presents an extremely safe profile and is currently being used clinically, these results suggest that this compound could be useful in the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. The antitumorigenic mechanism of cannabidiol is still controversial. In lung cancer cell lines A, H and primary cells from a patient with lung cancer, cannabidiol elicited decreased viability associated with apoptosis.
Six hours after the final dose on Day 5, the animals were euthanized, and samples of gastrointestinal GI tract contents were obtained. Lower limits of quantification: Findings of the present study show that orally dosed CBD , yielding clinically relevant plasma exposures, does not convert to THC in the minipig, a species predictive of human GI tract function. Patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease AD exhibit a decline in cognitive abilities including an inability to recognise familiar faces.
The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol CBD exerts neuroprotective, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and promotes neurogenesis. We also analysed the impact of CBD on anxiety behaviours in the elevated plus maze. Vehicle-treated APPxPS1 mice demonstrated impairments in social recognition and novel object recognition compared to wild type-like mice.
This is the first study to investigate the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition in an AD transgenic mouse model. Our findings suggest that CBD may have therapeutic potential for specific cognitive impairments associated with AD. Fewer specialists support using medical marijuana and CBD in treating epilepsy patients compared with other medical professionals and patients: Result of Epilepsia's survey.
Summary Objective From May 20 to September 1 , Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions about the use of medical marijuana and cannabidiol CBD for people with epilepsy. This study reports the findings of that poll. Methods The survey consisted of eight questions. Four questions asked if there were sufficient safety and efficacy data, whether responders would advise trying medical marijuana in cases of s Changes on metabolic parameters induced by acute cannabinoid administration CBD , THC in a rat experimental model of nutritional vitamin A deficiency.
Vitamin A deficiency can result from malnutrition, malabsorption of vitamin A, impaired vitamin metabolism associated with liver disease, or chronic debilitating diseases like HIV infection or cancer.
Cannabis administration has been described as a palliative symptom management therapy in such pathological stages. Therefore, this research aimed to study the effects of acute administration of cannabidiol CBD or thetrahydrocannabinol THC on the levels of ret Phytocannabinoids modulate inflammatory responses by regulating the production of cytokines in several experimental models of inflammation.
Cannabinoid type-2 CB 2 receptor activation was shown to reduce the production of the monocyte chemotactic protein-2 MCP-2 chemokine in polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly- I: We investigated if nonpsychotropic cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol CBD , produced similar effects in this experimental model of ACD.
HaCaT cells were stimulated with poly- I: C , and the release of chemokines and cytokines was measured in the presence of CBD or other phytocannabinoids such as cannabidiol acid, cannabidivarin, cannabidivarinic acid, cannabichromene, cannabigerol, cannabigerolic acid, cannabigevarin, tetrahydrocannabivarin, and tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid and antagonists of CB 1 , CB 2 , or transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 TRPV1 receptors.
HaCaT cell viability following phytocannabinoid treatment was also measured. The cellular levels of endocannabinoids [anandamide AEA , 2-arachidonoylglycerol] and related molecules palmitoylethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide were quantified in poly- I: We show that in poly- I: Effect of cannabidiol on human gingival fibroblast extracellular matrix metabolism: Marijuana Cannabis sativa use may be associated with gingival enlargement, resembling that caused by phenytoin.
Cannabidiol CBD , a nonpsychotropic Cannabis derivative, is structurally similar to phenytoin. While there are many reports on effects of phenytoin on human gingival fibroblasts, there is no information on effects of Cannabis components on these cells.
The objective of this study was to determine effects of CBD on human gingival fibroblast fibrogenic and matrix-degrading activities. The effect of CBD on cell viability was determined by measuring activity of a mitochondrial enzyme. Cannabidiol had little or no significant effect on cell viability. Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT 1A receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy.
Paclitaxel PAC is associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain CIPN that can lead to the cessation of treatment in cancer patients even in the absence of alternate therapies. We previously reported that chronic administration of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol CBD prevents PAC-induced mechanical and thermal sensitivity in mice. The ability of acute CBD pretreatment to prevent PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was assessed, as was the effect of CBD on place conditioning and on an operant-conditioned learning and memory task.
CBD produced no conditioned rewarding effects and did not affect conditioned learning and memory. Furthermore, CBD treatment was devoid of conditioned rewarding effects or cognitive impairment and did not attenuate PAC-induced inhibition of breast cancer cell viability.
Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT1A receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy.
Background and Purpose Paclitaxel PAC is associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain CIPN that can lead to the cessation of treatment in cancer patients even in the absence of alternate therapies. Experimental Approach The ability of acute CBD pretreatment to prevent PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was assessed, as was the effect of CBD on place conditioning and on an operant-conditioned learning and memory task.
The CBD with the credible contents as a powerful and time-saving tool provide more comprehensive and accurate information for further CRC biomarker research. All of these web operations were implemented under the Windows system. The CBD could provide to users the multiple individual biomarker information and categorized into the biological category, source and application of biomarkers; the experiment methods, results, authors and publication resources; the research region, the average age of cohort, gender, race, the number of tumours, tumour location and stage.
We only collect data from the articles with clear and credible results to prove the biomarkers are useful in the diagnosis, treatment or prognosis of CRC.
The CBD can also provide a professional platform to researchers who are interested in CRC research to communicate, exchange their research ideas and further design high-quality research in CRC.
They can submit their new findings to our database via the submission page and communicate with us in the CBD. Self-selection in such studies means it is impossible to rule out additional variables which may determine both cannabis strain selection and basal cognitive performance level.
Controlled laboratory studies can better determine a direct relationship.
Minnesota's medical pot firms tout new, potent strains
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