In addition to giving seizure medication, treatment for dogs and cats with seizures should include strengthening the brain and liver with supplements, providing a. Phenobarbital and newer seizure control medications are used for treating dogs and cats for epilepsy and other conditions causing seizures. Keppra (levetiracetam) is a newer medication that can be used for treating seizures in dogs and cats. Seizures and epilepsy are commonly.
Seizure Medication Dog
However they may feel disorientated and confused afterwards for a variable time period. It is important to give them reassurance and the opportunity to adjust following a seizure. Usually this involves some TLC and rest. In most cases we assume this is related to an underlying genetic predisposition, but multiple genes and environmental factors are involved in developing epilepsy.
No single test can tell if your pet has Primary epilepsy Seizures assumed to be related to an underlying genetic predisposition. Typically, a diagnostic investigation is split into two parts; firstly to investigate and exclude diseases where the seizures are caused by a problem outside of the brain, secondly to investigate and exclude those within the brain itself.
Your pet will most likely have a blood sample taken and a urine sample as part of the diagnosis process. The procedure must be performed under general anaesthesia. Primary epilepsy is most likely in young animals years of age that are neurologically normal normal behaviour, normal gait, etc between the seizures.
Primary epilepsy most likely has a complex genetic and environmental cause. This means that unlike recessively inherited genetic diseases, breeding to prevent epilepsy is very difficult and primary epilepsy can be diagnosed in any individual animal of any breed despite multiple normal generations and litters.
It is possible for most epileptic animals to have an excellent quality of life. However, epilepsy is a chronic and occasionally progressive disease that will need to be managed. Rarely, an animal may have a single seizure and not seizure again. An animal that has more than one seizure is expected to have more frequent or severe seizures in the future. There is evidence to suggest that early treatment in the course of the epilepsy can provide a better long-term outcome.
Despite treatment, epileptics are still likely to suffer intermittent seizures. Full Remission Killing sufficient cancer cells that none can be detected in the body by conventional means, for example clinical examination, blood tests, or imaging techniques.
The severity of seizures should also reduce. Zonisamide is metabolized predominantly by hepatic enzyme CYP3A4, and coadministration with other medications that induce or inhibit CYP3A4 that may change zonisamide pharmacokinetics in people. It has been shown however that concurrent administration of zonisamide and phenobarbital alters zonisamide pharmacokinetics. Zonisamide does not appear to affect its own metabolism or disposition of other medications because it has not been shown to induce or inhibit hepatic CYP isoenzymes.
Currently, there are no recommendations on optimal timing of blood sampling for zonisamide concentration monitoring. Most transient adverse effects are avoidable with titration dosing and dissipate within several weeks.
Four categories of adverse effects were established for each drug: Phenobarbital generally is well tolerated at the previously mentioned therapeutic serum concentrations in dogs. Phenobarbital also may be a risk factor for development of superficial necrolytic dermatitis in dogs. Chronic adverse effects usually affect water consumption polydipsia and appetite polyphagia. As a result, dogs may develop psychogenic polydipsia with associated polyuria. Neither endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH concentration nor the response to exogenous ACTH administration is altered by phenobarbital dosing.
Potassium bromide generally is well tolerated in the dog. The most common adverse effects seen with potassium bromide with or without phenobarbital combination treatment are polydipsia, polyphagia, increased lethargy, and mild ataxia with increasing serum bromide concentration.
Potassium bromide is a known mucosal irritant and capsules may result in gastric irritation because of direct contact of a concentrated amount of the drug with the gastric mucosa. Pancreatitis and gastrointestinal intolerance also have been reported.
Treatment with primidone is associated with adverse effects similar to those documented with phenobarbital treatment. Increased hepatic enzyme activity is more frequent and severe with primidone than with phenobarbital, 30 , 77 , 88 which can be explained by assuming that both intact primidone and its active metabolite phenobarbital affect the liver. As a consequence, primidone is associated with a higher frequency of hepatotoxicity than phenobarbital hepatic necrosis, fibrosis and cirrhosis all have been associated with chronic use of primidone.
No significant alterations in liver enzyme activity were observed with imepitoin. The reported adverse effects of zonisamide include sedation, generalized ataxia, vomiting, and inappetence. Idiosyncratic reactions to zonisamide are rare in dogs. On the basis of these reports, hepatic enzyme activity, electrolytes, blood gas analysis, and hematology should be assessed before initiation of zonisamide and monitored periodically during zonisamide treatment.
An increase in serum chloride concentration and a decrease in bicarbonate or TCO 2 should prompt further investigation of renal tubular acidosis. Zonisamide treatment may affect thyroid function and some clinical laboratory test results.
In a pharmacokinetic study of healthy dogs given zonisamide at Increases in serum ALP activity and serum calcium concentration and decreases in serum total protein and albumin concentrations were reported compared to baseline but remained within reference range.
The decision to add a second AED is based on seizure frequency, severity duration, cluster activity, postictal effects , and overall quality of life. Risk factors associated with poorer seizure control include male dogs and prior cluster seizure activity. Several factors should be considered when deciding on a second AED. A discussion on drug resistance is provided in a supplementary file.
However, phenobarbital has been used extensively in combination with several AEDs, as noted below. In epileptic dogs that do not respond to monotherapy with primidone, potassium bromide has been added, but with only limited therapeutic success.
There is only very limited published information on supplemental treatment with imepitoin. In a prospective trial in 17 dogs with chronic epilepsy, in which imepitoin was added to the current treatment with phenobarbital or primidone, most dogs exhibited decreases in seizure frequency and severity, and imepitoin was better tolerated than potassium bromide when used as supplemental treatment.
To date, all of the published studies on levetiracetam for dogs with epilepsy have evaluated its use as supplemental treatment in dogs refractory to phenobarbital, bromide, or both. Advanced imaging and CSF analysis were not required for participation in the study. Although a significant decrease in weekly seizure frequency compared to baseline was identified for dogs receiving levetiracetam, the reduction in seizures was not significant when compared to placebo. A retrospective evaluation of dogs treated at an epilepsy referral center described response rates to successively administered antiepileptic drugs.
Concurrently administered AEDs including phenobarbital, bromide, felbamate, or clorazepate could be decreased in dosage or discontinued in all 7 responders to zonisamide. The mean decrease in phenobarbital dosage was All 12 dogs in this study experienced generalized seizures, and 2 of them also had focal seizures.
There were no significant differences between serum zonisamide concentrations in responders versus nonresponders for either trough or peak concentrations. Seizure duration and severity eg, single seizures instead of cluster seizures or status epilepticus decreased in 2 dogs.
The dose of phenobarbital, bromide or both could be decreased in 7 dogs without subsequent impairment of seizure control. The mechanism by which VNS exerts its antiepileptic effect is not completely understood, but it is believed that stimulation of afferent vagal fibers influences brain activity by modulation of noradrenergic and cholinergic synaptic transmission in people , and dogs. Preclinical studies evaluating VNS as a treatment for seizures performed in normal animals first demonstrated that intermittent stimulation of the left cervical vagus trunk could effectively prevent experimentally induced seizures in dogs.
Homeopathic remedies most frequently used in humans with epilepsy include silicea, cuprum, causticum, hyosciamus, Aethus cynapium , Agaricus muscaricus , Absinthium , Artemisia absinthium , stramonium , and Cicuta virosa.
Evidence to support the use of these treatments currently is lacking. The most important outcome measure of a chronic medical condition such as epilepsy is quality of life QOL. For dogs, QOL is reflected not only by the degree of therapeutic success but also by maintaining a high QoL while living with epilepsy. The determination of QoL is heavily influenced by the burden placed on the household members as owners. Owners will choose euthanasia if the emotional stress, psychosocial challenges, economic burden, or some combination of these associated with having an epileptic dog in the household exceeds the expectations of the owner.
Dogs with epilepsy have been reported to have an increased risk of premature death as a result of euthanasia. A recent study investigating dogs with idiopathic and structural epilepsy separately, found that the median life span for dogs with idiopathic epilepsy was not decreased when compared with the median life span of dogs in general, whereas the median life span for dogs with structural epilepsy was significantly reduced.
Breed also may influence outcome because certain breeds eg, Labrador retriever, Belgian shepherd experience mild epilepsy with good outcome, , whereas other breeds eg, Border collie, Australian shepherd suffer from a more aggressive form of epilepsy, and may experience a more unfavorable outcome. To date, no standardized validated QOL questionnaires exist for dogs with epilepsy. Measures of the epilepsy burden on families should include questions regarding restrictions on the owner's and household's life, and frustrations over caring for a dog with epilepsy, as well as emotional stress and anxiety experienced in the household.
Ultimately, economic considerations and intrahousehold disagreements regarding QOL of living with an epileptic dog factor heavily in the decision to euthanize. Conflict of Interest Declaration: Served as paid consultant, and paid researcher, for Boehringer Ingelheim and Aratana Therapeutics.
Member of an international veterinary epilepsy consortium with Dr. The consortium and the consensus statement panel were synergistic. Served as paid researcher for: Received competitive research grants for: Chair of an international veterinary epilepsy consortium with Dr. The consortium and the consensus statement panel were synergetic. Served as paid consultant, and paid researcher, for Boehringer lngelheim, —, on development and approval of imepitoin Pexion in Europe.
Served as paid consultant, and paid researcher, for Boehringer lngelheim Vetmedica. The ACVIM Board of Regents oversees selection of relevant topics, identification of panel members with the expertise to draft the statements, and other aspects of assuring the integrity of the process. A draft is prepared by the panel, followed by solicitation of input by the ACVIM membership which may be incorporated into the statement.
The authors are solely responsible for the content of the statements. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Vet Intern Med. Published online Feb Volk , 3 M. Berendt , 4 W. Patterson , 8 and S. Paul, MN Find articles by E. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This report represents a scientific and working clinical consensus statement on seizure management in dogs based on current literature and clinical expertise. Cerebrospinal fluid, Dogs, Epilepsy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Neurologic disorder. Open in a separate window. When Should Treatment Be Started? Phenobarbital Phenobarbital is a phenyl barbiturate with the longest history of chronic use of all AEDs in veterinary medicine.
Potassium Bromide Bromide was the first documented AED used for epilepsy in people in with introduction to veterinary medicine in the s. Primidone Primidone is the only AED that is specifically approved for dogs in the United States, whereas phenobarbital, imepitoin, and as an additional drug potassium bromide are approved for treatment of epilepsy in dogs in Europe.
Imepitoin Imepitoin was approved in Europe for treatment of idiopathic epilepsy only in dogs in , in Australia in and is currently unavailable in the United States. Levetiracetam Levetiracetam was approved by the FDA in for treatment of refractory focal onset seizures in adults. How Should Monitoring Be Performed? Table 2 Qualified criteria recommendations for AED drug use. Levetiracetam Serum concentrations of levetiracetam are not routinely measured in clinical practice, based on the drug's wide therapeutic index and lack of an established relationship between levetiracetam concentrations and both treatment response and adverse effects in people and dogs.
Zonisamide Zonisamide is metabolized predominantly by hepatic enzyme CYP3A4, and coadministration with other medications that induce or inhibit CYP3A4 that may change zonisamide pharmacokinetics in people. Not reported in the dog. Not reported for the dog. Imepitoin There is only very limited published information on supplemental treatment with imepitoin. Levetiracetam To date, all of the published studies on levetiracetam for dogs with epilepsy have evaluated its use as supplemental treatment in dogs refractory to phenobarbital, bromide, or both.
Homeopathy Homeopathic remedies most frequently used in humans with epilepsy include silicea, cuprum, causticum, hyosciamus, Aethus cynapium , Agaricus muscaricus , Absinthium , Artemisia absinthium , stramonium , and Cicuta virosa.
Supporting information Data S1. Another factor to consider when an older dog has seizures is that they can be frailer, and more likely to get hurt or disoriented. Take extra care to keep your senior pet safe and comfortable if it starts having seizures.
If your dog has recurrent seizures, this is known as epilepsy. When canine epilepsy has a known cause such as disease , it is called secondary epilepsy. However, some pets will have recurring epileptic seizures that are unexplained, and this is known as idiopathic epilepsy or primary epilepsy.
Although idiopathic epilepsy in dogs is not treatable, the symptoms can be managed through a combination of anti-seizure medication and lifestyle changes, and epileptic dogs can still enjoy a good quality of life. Learning to spot the symptoms can help you to prepare yourself and your pet. The most common type of seizure is generalized, tonic-clonic or grand mal seizures. Many dogs experience generalized seizures in three stages, though this is not always the case.
Status epilepticus is a life-threatening condition and you should contact your veterinarian immediately. In addition, the generalized tonic-clonic seizures described above, there are other kinds of seizures to watch out for. Mild seizures are similar to generalized seizures but without the loss of consciousness or such pronounced spasms. Petit mal seizures in dogs are manifested by brief absences and can be difficult to spot. Look out for short periods of unconsciousness, upturned eyes, or blank stares.
Cluster seizures is a term to describe multiple seizures that happen within a hour period. Although the individual seizures may be brief, cluster seizures are considered life-threatening and you should contact your vet immediately if your pet has them.
Focal seizures or partial seizures occur when there is irregular activity in just one area of the brain. They can remain partial or spread to the rest of the brain and develop into generalized seizures. Again, focal seizures could be more difficult to spot, but symptoms include twitching or jerking on one side of the body, along with restlessness and distractedness.
Dog Seizures: Symptoms, Types, and Treatment for Seizures in Dogs
Your vet may prescribe medicines to control seizures. Always follow your vet's instructions when you give your dog medicine. Don't let him miss. The most common treatments for treating seizures in dogs are potassium. Effective: Phenobarbital for dogs is an effective medication that helps to control.